Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 106

example, GRAALTECH AUVs (Fig. 2) that are now being used
in a wide range of applications such as tracking down historic ship wrecks, e.g., the sunken ships inspection, mapping
the offshore floor, object detection, ensuring harbor safety and
searching for sea mines, etc. [9].
This paper considers a novel, complete and updated survey
of the main instrumentation and measurement systems embedded in AUVs, including future uses and development. The
paper is a synthesis of the main and current navigation, mapping and sampling technologies and different applications.

Literature Review

Fig. 1. Korean AUV, OKPQ-6000, that can dive up to 6,000 meters, developed
by Daewoo Heavy Industries Ltd. (DHI) [104].

Nowadays, the technology used in AUVs is considered relatively complex due to the morphology of the vehicles and the
working conditions underwater. It will contain certain systems and sensors regarding to the required work. There are
general configurations in the market, e.g., Dorado class from
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) AUV
(Fig. 3), and products developed by specialized offshore inspection companies as MBARI [10], JAMSTEC [11], Atlas
Elektronik [12], KONGSBERG [13] or ALTUS [14], etc.

Functional Classification of AUVs
The embedded systems in AUV can be classified according to
their functionality:
Propulsion or Drive System: Different systems and elements
are used to impulse the vehicle, e.g., regarding to the steering
rotor and propeller issues [15], with multiple shapes and materials in the market nowadays [16]. An appropriate propulsion
system is set according to the vehicle morphology and use
[17]. It is studied by aerodynamics and fluid mechanics scientists, taking into account the hull shape, where its design will
be relevant for the correct effectivity of the vehicle [18]. There
is some research about the optimization of the trajectory control and propulsion systems, using different mathematical and
algorithmic advances related to the vectorial positioning of the
vehicles, studying velocity and yaw components to improve

Fig. 2. "La Folaga" by GRAALTECH.

Fig. 3. Typical structure of an AUV. Design of the MBARI mapping AUV [105].
106	

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2020



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2

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