Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 107

Table 1 - Summary of navigation and mapping embedded systems in AUV for Underwater Offshore Inspections
Application

Navigation

System

Sensor Technology

CTD/Sonde

Geophysical sensor

Gyroscope

Geophysical sensor

Magnetometers

Geophysical sensor

Accelerometer

Inertial sensor

Barometer/Pressure Sensor

Inertial sensor

Ref.
[46], [47]

Different simple and single sensors that
properly configured and assembled,
can form a functional block like
tracking and positioning applications.

[48], [49]
[50], [51]
[29], [50]
[52], [53]

Inertial Sensor

Measure the velocity of the AUV with
respect to the ground. The position
estimation accuracy can improve
greatly by Kalman filter. DVL will
consist of 4 or more beams.

[43], [54]

Beacon (Acoustic)

They can provide a complete ubication
information of the AUV, however, these
methods could present information
delay and low measurement accuracy,
producing stability errors.

[55], [56]

Imaging Type Sonar
(Acoustic)

Intensity of returns measure to originate
2D seabed image. Beams are directed
perpendicular to route direction. Phase
correlation and preprocessing methods
have been used to improve the system.

[57]-[60]

Multibeam echosounders

Rating Type Sonar
(Acoustic)

Improving the single beam, obtaining
a full coverage measurement in the
area, wide range, high sensitivity
and broadband response with high
sensitivity. Work with time from
returns form bathymetric maps.

[61], [62]

Subbottom Profilers

Rating Type Sonar
(Acoustic)

Low frequency echosounders that
investigate the seafloor.

[62], [63]

Forward Look

Imaging Type Sonar
(Acoustic)

Similar method to a side-scan sonar, but
with directed forward beams. Recent
studies use this method combining
with convolutional neural networks
for objects detection.

[64]-[66]

Camera

Geophysical sensor
(Optical)

Optical graphics capturing and imaging
processing. Relevant method for
biological and geological surveys.

[67], [68]

Doppler Velocity Log (DVL)

Baseline (Long/Ultra Short)

Sidescan

Mapping

AUV mission autonomy [19], [20]. AUVSIPRO is a simulation
software developed for performance prediction with different
propulsion system configurations [21], providing an effective
method for the hull hydrodynamic study.
Power Sources: The most common warehouse and storage
methods are the standard commercial batteries developed,
e.g., magnesium-seawater battery [22], a pressure tolerant Liion battery [23] and an aluminium-hydrogen peroxide (Al/
H2O2) semi fuel cell [24], where different types of them, e.g., alkaline cell or fuel cell, are used depending on the function of
buoyancy changes, system simplicity or depth requirements
[25]. There are novel energy sources under research now, e.g.,
April 2020	

Features

based on hydrogen fuel cells or the combination of the aforementioned systems, using the renewable energies of special
interest [26], [27].
Navigation and Positioning Systems: These vehicles work in
large offshore areas and need proper systems and methods to
guide their trajectories. It is important to have reliable navigation and positioning for underwater surveys. AUV navigation
and localization techniques can be divided according to three
categories: Acoustic transponders and modems [28]; Inertial/dead reckoning [29], [30], and; Geophysical techniques
[31]. They consist of hardware and software architecture systems, e.g., the well-known Extended Kalman Filter [32], [33],

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	107



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