Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 16

Table 4 - Summary of measured results using different methods
Method A
Band

A

B

C/D

Frequency
(MHz)

Method B

Method C

S(f)

Unc.

S(f)

Unc.

S(f)

Unc.

0.009

139.90

0.13

139.84

0.21

139.81

0.22

0.01

139.83

0.13

139.87

0.21

139.81

0.22

0.05

139.77

0.12

139.83

0.21

139.68

0.22

0.1

139.79

0.11

139.84

0.21

139.24

0.22

0.15

139.79

0.11

140.25

0.21

138.49

0.22

0.15

107.11

0.21

107.40

0.12

106.86

0.22

0.6

106.90

0.23

107.20

0.12

106.86

0.22

1

106.93

0.20

107.06

0.12

106.85

0.22

10

106.94

0.22

107.05

0.12

105.95

0.22

30

106.75

0.22

106.54

0.12

96.40

0.23

50

90.08

0.16

89.62

0.14

90.94

0.25

120

90.04

0.17

89.20

0.14

85.85

0.25

300

90.14

0.16

88.96

0.14

78.35

0.25

500

90.12

0.18

88.57

0.14

73.91

0.25

1000

89.57

0.20

88.61

0.15

45.79

0.26

Method A = Fourier transform of the time-domain pulse waveform
Method B = Intermediate-frequency measurement method
Method C = Measurement of pulse amplitude and duration
pulse signal and a reference CW signal (with known level) connected to a narrow-band filter, whereas the output of the filter
(intermediate frequency) is acquired using an oscilloscope.
The spectrum amplitude is then calculated from the response
to both input signals at the frequency of the tuned filter (receiver) as follows:
	

S ( f ) = U rms / IBW ,	(2)

where Urms (V) is the level of CW signal which causes equal
oscilloscope reading as the pulse signal and IBW (Hz) is the impulse bandwidth of the used filter. The accuracy of the method
is dependent on the accurate characterization of the receiver
impulse bandwidth IBW [13]. The spectrum amplitude is calculated as the surface under the pulse envelope (i.e., positive
amplitudes only), shown in Fig. 4. The measurement setup is
shown in Fig. 5.
The practical procedure is the following: in the first step,
the pulse generator output is connected to the receiver input,
and the response of the receiver's IF filter is captured using an
oscilloscope (direct connection using a high-grade cable, without attenuators). The peak-to-peak amplitude of the trace is
measured as well. In the second step, a CW sine signal is connected to the receiver, and its amplitude is changed until the
oscilloscope peak-to-peak reading is the same as for the pulse
signal. The RMS level of this sine signal is measured using a
calibrated power meter. The attenuation of the cable from the
generator to the receiver and from the receiver IF output to the
16	

oscilloscope is not important, as it cancels due to the ratio measurement. The measurement equation is the following:


	 f = 20 log  2Vpwm ,rms Venv k k k IBW ⋅ 10 6  [dBμV/MHz],	
S
( )
peak osc IBW


Vosc ,pp


(3)

where Vpwm,rms is the voltage across a 50 Ω load of the CW sine
signal calculated from the RMS power measured by the power

Fig. 4. Intermediate frequency measurement method.

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2020



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2

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