Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 19

to verify. In other bands,
the pulse repetition frequency would have to be
sufficient. Results of this
method are not compared
with the other methods in
Table 4.
Specifications include:
IGUU 2916 Main generator, amplitude setting 60
dBμV. The spectrum amplitude S(f) is given in dBμV/
MHz and the associated
measurement uncertainty
is given in dB (k = 2).

Conclusion
In this paper, various methods for calibration of pulse
generators are discussed,
Fig. 9. Measurement of one spectrum line amplitude (PRF = pulse repetition frequency).
and results of measurement of the spectrum
Measurement of One Spectrum Line Amplitude
amplitude of a particular pulse generator Schwarzbeck IGUU
The principle of this method is a comparison of one spectrum 2916 are presented. The spectrum amplitude was evaluated
line of the pulse signal with a known CW signal spectrum (equal using the following methods: (a) Fourier transform of the
frequency). This method assumes the generator pulse repeti- time-domain pulse waveform; (b) an intermediate-frequency
tion frequency is high enough so that only one spectral line falls measurement method; (c) measurement of pulse amplitude
within the EMI receiver filter bandwidth (Fig. 9). The nominal and duration; and (d) measurement of one spectrum line amfilter bandwidths for the 6 dB amplitude drop are 200 Hz (band plitude. Method (a) can achieve the lowest measurement
A), 9 kHz (band B) and 120 kHz (band C/D), respectively. This uncertainty and is simple to perform. It requires a fast digimethod is referred to as "harmonic measurement" in [5].
tal real-time or sampling oscilloscope, and the spectrum of the
The spectrum amplitude is then calculated using a simple measured waveform must be corrected for known attenuation
formula:
of the signal path. Method (b) uses an EMI receiver which is
more common in calibration laboratories. The measurement
A
,	(7) uncertainty is comparable to method (a). One has to be care	
S( f ) =
frep
ful not to overload the receiver input, as time-domain pulse
where A is the substitution CW signal level for the same read- generators use high peak amplitudes which may destroy the
ing of the receiver, and frep is the generator pulse repetition input mixer. Method (c) is more suitable for pulse-modulated
frequency. A calibrated measuring receiver is needed in this RF generators, and the results for a base-band pulse generacase. The measurement setup is shown in Fig. 10. The receiver tor IGUU 2916 band C/D are not reliable due to the distorted
filter should be well symmetrical.
pulse shape. The measurement uncertainty is slightly higher
The maximum pulse repetition rate of the IGUU2916 main than that of methods (a) or (b). Method (d) is applicable only
generator is 200 Hz, thus only the band A could be possible for pulse generators with very high pulse repetition rates (at
least 500 Hz for band A, at least 10 kHz for band B and at least
120 kHz for band C/D). The results achieved for band A and
B of the IGUU 2916 Aux generator are comparable to method
(a) for the same generator; however, the measurement uncertainty is rather high due to noise and low repeatability of
the pulses. The goal uncertainty of maximum ±0.5 dB given
in standards could not be achieved using method (d). The
measured results of methods (a) to (c) with measurement uncertainties are summarized in Table 4.

References
Fig. 10. Measurement setup for the measurement of one spectrum line
amplitude.
April 2020	

[1]	 M. A. Azpúrua, M. Pous, J. A. Oliva, B. Pinter, M. Hudlicˇka and
F. Silva, "Waveform approach for assessing conformity of CISPR

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	19



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