Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 24

Fig. 3. (a) FP test window, the LabVIEW frequency characteristic application,
and the physical probes contacting the PCB; (b) Frequency response
characteristic for a 10 nF capacitor.

Fig. 3a shows the FP test window and the LabVIEW TM
based interface which controls the interaction between the
FP and the LCR meter. The physical probes connections, in a
4-wire measurement setup, are also presented.
To interact with the external application, the FP program
should include a DDE test step. Once this step is reached by
predefined strings, a call to the LabVIEWTM interface is generated. This interface initializes the frequency sweep by
automatically loading the stored preferences.
The measurement begins by setting the probe coordinates
according to previously described conventions. Next, data regarding specific measurement settings is selected: LCR serial
or parallel model, L or C component, nominal value, tolerance,
and test signal amplitude. After the command for placing the
probes is processed and the confirmation is received, the frequency sweep begins. This allows the user to analyze the
achieved real-time results in the range 1 kHz - 300 kHz, with
a step of 1 kHz.
Fig. 3b shows measurement results achieved in the case of
a 10 nF capacitor. The following settings were used: a parallel
measurement model, a 1 Vrms test signal, and 25% tolerance,
which includes component and estimated cable paths error.
For lower frequencies the measured values are situated
outside the tolerance range. At a test frequency of 60 kHz the
application measures a value of 11.1 nF, which falls in the predefined accuracy interval. For frequencies between 60 kHz
and 140 kHz the measurement values slightly decrease, while
for the remaining frequencies the results are almost equal to 9.5
nF. In the frequency range 101 kHz - 105 kHz, the smaller relative measurement error (δ ≅ 0.1%) is achieved. Based on this
24	

behavior, a test frequency of 101 kHz was used in the second
step of the measurement process.
Other capacitors in the 1 nF - 100 nF range were tested
because they caused most of the initially reported measurement errors. It was observed that for capacitors as low as
10 nF, the highest measurement relative error, in the most
suitable frequency range, was δ ≅ 5.3%, which are acceptable
for production purposes. For nominal values below 10 nF
the measurement errors are high. For example, in the case of
4.7 nF, 2.2 nF, and 1 nF, the achieved relative errors δ were between 10.9% - 60.4%. In this case, the measurement could be
used to roughly detect the presence or absence of a specific
component.
Inductors with nominal values in the range 1 μH - 47 μH
were tested. For a 1 μH inductance the measured value by
the FP was equal to 2.2 μH (δ ≅ 124%), while by the combined
FP and LCR meter it was equal to 1.01 μH (δ ≅ 1%). For the
47 μH inductance the measured values by the FP and the combined FP and LCR meter were 40.5 μH (δ ≅ 13.8%) and 42.5 μH
(δ ≅ 9.6%), respectively.
The presented solution is well-suited for testing capacitors
higher than 10 nF, while no restrictions could be observed in
the case of inductors.

Lessons Learned
These activities are useful because our students interact with
the FP, which is one of the most important pieces of equipment
used for prototyping purposes. They understand how integrations can increase technical benefits. Finally, they create their
own frequency analysis application.
The main drawback of this application is that the FP equipment is very expensive, and it is not available at the University.
The application can be studied, developed and tested only at
the partner company, a fact which triggers different scheduling challenges.

Online Visualization versus Time of
the Measurement Results Provided by
MEMS Sensors
MEMS Inertial Measurement Units
The MEMS inertial measurement units can be used on wearable devices for personal monitoring in indoor environments
where the GPS signal is low [11]. In this case the data should
be sent to a suitable device such as a PC through a wireless
communication. The Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) devices are
well-suited for the communication purpose. The BLE technology is different as compared with the traditional Bluetooth
technology because in this case, sending and receiving information is done over short time intervals. This leads to low
power consumption, and therefore, the BLE devices can be
used for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. A BLE device
can be in one of the following states: standby, advertiser, scanner, initiator, or master and slave [12], [13].
The MEMS are mounted on a small PCB together with the
electronic part designated for wireless communication. The

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2020



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 81
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 82
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 83
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 84
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 85
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 86
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 87
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 88
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 89
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 90
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 91
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 92
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 93
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 94
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 95
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 96
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 97
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 98
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 99
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 100
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 101
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 102
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 103
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 104
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 105
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 106
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 107
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 108
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 109
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 110
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 111
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 112
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 113
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 114
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 115
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 116
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 117
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 118
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 119
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 120
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com