Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 56

Fig. 3. Graph shows X(t), c1(t), and r1(t) [6].

Fig. 4. Graph shows r1(t), c2(t) and r2(t) [6].

Using EMD for 5071A Cs Clock Signal
De-Noising
There are various noise sources that affect the 5071A Cs
atomic clock output signal, especially the WFM noise. Also,
the raw clocks comparison data carried out within time keeping Labs for participation in the International Atomic Time
(TAI) calculations is noisy. This degrades the frequency stability of Cs atomic clocks, and, consequently, the stability of
the local average TS, UTC(K). The EMD method, as explained
above, can be used for Cs atomic clock signal de-noising, because the useful clock signal is contained in the stationary
low-frequency IMFs, while the high-frequency random noise
is concentrated in the high frequency IMFs. If the Cs clock signal is decomposed into a finite and a small number of IMFs
and a residue using EMD method, then the first IMF components are rejected to suppress noise, and the remaining low
frequency IMFs are combined with the residue to represent
the de-noised clock signal [8].
In this section, the EMD method is applied for smoothing
part of the clock ensemble maintained by OP which includes 4
high-performance 5071A Cs clocks. The clocks of OP are compared daily to UTC(OP) and the results of these comparisons
are uploaded continuously to the time server of BIPM. So,
it was possible to download the comparison results for four
Cs clocks from the ensemble of OP for a period of 365 days
56	

Fig. 5. Decomposition of X(t) into IMF1(t), IMF2(t), IMF3(t) and r3(t) using EMD
[6].

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2020



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2

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