Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2 - 90

Rule 4. Coins with a Small Monetary Worth are
Chosen

Rule 5. Coins are Chosen from an Author's
Country

The precise formulation of this rule is somewhat difficult.
The used coins are typically common within their country. Business strike and low face values are often preferred.
There is no evidence that authors choose expensive or special coins. The rule could be formulated based on coin rarity,
but the rarity of a coin is hard to assess, especially as Rules 5
and 6 will ensure that globally rare coins are used. The distinction could be made based on face value, but this would
include bullion and collector coins with face values much
lower than their market values. Commemorative, bullion
and collectors coins are not chosen. The formulation of small
monetary worth emphasizes that pennies (0.01 USD) and
EUR one cent coins are chosen, although coins of larger denominations are readily available in these currencies. Rules 5
and 6 ensure that monetary worth only has to be determined
within a currency and not globally, which might otherwise
introduce dependencies on foreign exchange rates. Counterexamples are given in Fig. 3 with a Tiertaler collector coin
(3 EUR) and a Wiener Philharmoniker bullion coin (100 EUR,
1 XAU).

Coins are selected from an author's country. The affiliated
countries are the ones given by the authors in the referenced
papers. Twelve papers use coins from countries other than any
of the authors' affiliations. This rule does not apply when figures are reused, e.g., two figures from [23] are reused in [24]; in
both images quarter dollars (0.25 USD) are used. The authors'
affiliation in [24] is Spain; in [23] the authors' affiliations are
USA. In [25], a 1 EUR coin appears. The figure is reused from
[26]. Coincidentally, the authors from [25] are from the Netherlands, but one figure in [25] is reused from [27] where a 1 CAD
coin is shown. In [28], authors affiliated with India reuse a figure from [29] where a 1 CNY coin is displayed.

Rule 6. Coins are Chosen from the First Author's
Country
This rule is tighter than the previous one. The first author's
country is again the affiliation given in the paper. Nine papers
use coins from affiliated countries of authors other than the
first author in addition to the counterexamples to Rule 5.

Rule 7. Contemporary Coins are Used
Coins are selected only from currencies that were in circulation
when the referenced papers were published. A counterexample is given in Fig. 4. The coin is a Roman sesterce from
119-121 anno Domini (AD) that shows Emperor Hadrian on
the obverse. It is used to measure the size of a conical monopole antenna, which is placed on a ground plane made from
carbon fiber reinforced polymer-work that was performed in
2016 and published in 2017 [30].

Rule 8. Coins are Used as a Measure of Size Only
for Coin-sized Objects
When measuring length or size, it makes sense to choose an
appropriate measurement device. One would not measure the
size of a house with a caliper or the size of a microchip with a

Fig. 3. (a) The size of a twill-weave carbon fiber reinforced polymer reflector
[21] is measured with a kingfisher Tiertaler (3 EUR). (b) The size of a carbon
fiber reinforced polymer sample [22] is measured with a Wiener Philharmoniker
(100 EUR, 1 XAU).
90	

Fig. 4. The size of a conical monopole antenna on a carbon fiber reinforced
polymer ground-plane [30] is measured with a sesterce (not ISO 4217).

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2020



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-2

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