Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 19

updated periodically. The principal document [28] discusses
JNT and cites an annexed document on low-temperature JNT
and the challenges that must be met in the low-temperature regime [30].

[11]	J. Hendricks, "Quantum for pressure," Measure for Measure,
Nature Physics, vol. 14, Jan. 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.
nature.com/articles/nphys4338.
[12]	B. P. Kibble, "A measurement of the gyromagnetic ratio of
the proton by the strong field method," in Atomic Masses and

Conclusion

Fundamental Constants, J.H. Sanders and A. H. Wapstra, Eds. New

With the revision in May 2019, the SI stepped into the 21st century. Mercury columns and the international prototype of the
kilogram as symbols of 18th century metrology will soon be replaced by optical cavities and Kibble balances. The SI now is a
good fit to quantum physics and is already inspiring new technologies that shorten calibration chains, make use of accurate
theoretical calculations of useful gas properties, and a host of
other possibilities. These possibilities may have been available before 2019, but they are facilitated and encouraged by
the present SI.
We have chosen a diverse set of metrological research
to illustrate these points: mass determinations, electrical
measurements, flow metrology, pressure metrology, and thermometry. We could have mentioned many others. In addition,
basic metrology is continuously evolving: Basic metrology in
2030 might include a redefinition of the second, based on the
frequency of an optical clock.

York, NY, USA: Plenum, 1976.
[13]	K. v. Klitzing, G. Dorda, and M. Pepper, "New method for highaccuracy determination of the fine-structure constant based on
quantized Hall resistance," Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 45, p. 494, 1980.
[14]	B. J. Josephson, "Possible new effects in superconducting
tunneling," Phys. Lett., vol. 1, p. 251, 1962.
[15]	G. A. Shaw "Current state of the art in small mass and force
metrology within the International System of Units," Meas. Sci.
Technol., vol. 29, 072001, 2018.
[16]	G. A. Shaw, J. Stirling, J. Kramar, A. Moses et al., "Milligram mass
metrology using an electrostatic force balance," Metrologia, vol.
53, no. 5, Sep. 2016.
[17]	K.S. Novoselov, A. Geim, S. Morozov, D. Jiang et al. "Electric field
effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science, vol. 306, pp. 666669, Oct. 2004.
[18]	A.F. Rigosi and R.E. Elmquist "The quantum Hall effect in the era
of the new SI," Semicon. Sci. Technol. vol. 34, no. 093004, 2019.
[19]	E.J. Fox, I. Rosen, Y. Yang, G. Jones et al., "Part-per-million

References

quantization and current-induced breakdown of the quantum

[1]	 R. Davis, "An introduction to the revised international system of
units (SI)," IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag., vol. 22, 2019.
[2]	 SP 250-63 Gas Flowmeter Calibrations with the 34 L and 677 L
PVTt Standards, NIST.

anomalous Hall effect," Phys. Rev., B, vol. 98, 075145, Aug. 2018.
[20]	A.-M. Jeffrey, R. Elmquist, L. Lee, J. Shields, and R. Dziuba et
al., "NIST comparison of quantized Hall resistance and the
realization of the SI Ohm through the calculable capacitor," IEEE

[3]	 J. Pope, K. Gillis, M. Moldover, J. Mehl, and E. Harman,
"Characterizing gas-collection volumes with acoustic and
microwave resonances," in Proc. 10th Int. Symp. Fluid Flow
Measurements, Mar. 2018.

Trans. Instrum., vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 262-268, Apr. 1997.
[21]	A. M. Thompson and D. G. Lampard, "A new theorem in
electrostatics and its application to calculable standards of
capacitance," Nature, vol. 177, p. 888, 1956.

[4]	 J. Pope, K. Gillis, M. Moldover, J. Mehl, and E. Harman, "Progress
towards a gas-flow standard using microwave and acoustic
resonances," Flow Meas. Instrum., vol. 69, 101592, Oct. 2019.
[5]	 C. R. Tilford, "Three and a half centuries later-the modern art of
liquid-column manometry," Metrologia, vol. 30, pp. 545-552, 1994.
[6]	 P. Egan, J. Stone, J. Ricker, and J. Hendricks, "Comparison
measurements of low-pressure between a laser refractometer and
ultrasonic manometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 87, 053113, 2016.
[7]	 J. L. Lee, "No longer under pressure: NIST dismantles giant
mercury manometer," Jun. 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.
nist.gov/news-events/news/2019/06/no-longer-under-pressurenist-dismantles-giant-mercury-manometer
[8]	 K. Jousten, J. H. Hendricks, D. Barker, K. Douglas et al.
"Perspectives for a new realization of the pascal by optical
methods," Metrologia, vol. 54, no. 6, 2017.
[9]	 P. Egan, J. Stone, J. Scherschligt, and A. Harvey, "Measured
relationship between thermodynamic pressure and refractivity
for six candidate gases in laser barometry," J. Vacuum Science &
Technol. A, vol. 37, 031603, 2019.

[22]	J. Schurr, F. Ahlers, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, "The ac quantum Hall
effect as a primary standard of impedance," Metrologia, vol. 44,
no. 1, 2007.
[23]	J. F. Qu, S. Benz, H. Rogalla, W. Tew et al., "Johnson noise
thermometry," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 30, no. 11, Sep. 2019.
[24]	J. Qu, S. Benz, A. Pollarolo, H. Rogalla, et al., Improved electronic
measurement of the Boltzmann constant by Johnson noise
thermometry, Metrologia, vol. 52, pp. S242-S256, Aug. 2015.
[25]	S. P. Benz, J. M. Martinis, P. D. Dresselhaus, and S. W. Nam, "An
AC Josephson source for Johnson noise thermometry," IEEE
Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 52, pp. 545-549, Apr. 2003.
[26]	M. R. Moldover, W. L. Tew, and H. W. Yoon, "Advances in
thermometry," Nature Physics, vol. 12, pp. 7-11, 2016.
[27]	P. J. Mohr, D. Newell, B. Taylor, and E. Tiesinga, "Data and
analysis for the CODATA 2017 special fundamental constants
adjustment," Metrologia, vol. 55, pp. 125-146, Jan. 2018.
[28]	J. Qu, S. Benz, K. Coakley, H. Rogalla et al., "An improved
electronic determination of the Boltzmann constant by Johnson
noise thermometry," Metrologia, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 549-558, 2017.

[10]	S. Kelley, Gauging pressure with light: a demonstration of the

[29]	"Mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin in the SI,"

fixed length optical cavity (FLOC), video, Feb. 2019. [Online].

Consultative Committee for Thermometry, CIPM, SI Brochure,

Available: https://www.nist.gov/video/gauging-pressure-light-

9th ed., May 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.bipm.org/

demonstration-fixed-length-optical-cavity-floc.

utils/en/pdf/si-mep/SI-App2-kelvin.pdf.

May 2020	

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	19


https://www.nature.com/articles/nphys4338 https://www.nature.com/articles/nphys4338 https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2019/06/no-longer-under-pressure-nist-dismantles-giant-mercury-manometer https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2019/06/no-longer-under-pressure-nist-dismantles-giant-mercury-manometer https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2019/06/no-longer-under-pressure-nist-dismantles-giant-mercury-manometer https://www.nist.gov/video/gauging-pressure-light-demonstration-fixed-length-optical-cavity-floc https://www.bipm.org/utils/en/pdf/si-mep/SI-App2-kelvin.pdf https://www.bipm.org/utils/en/pdf/si-mep/SI-App2-kelvin.pdf https://www.nist.gov/video/gauging-pressure-light-demonstration-fixed-length-optical-cavity-floc

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - Cover1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3 - 43
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com