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Fig. 4. The underlying protocol for transmitting the measurements (e.g., UDP
instead of TCP) affects the cloud's perspective and subsequently affects the
possibility of using that data to do causality analytics.

Fig. 3. Although the measurements taken from each sensor are in sequence,
without a global clock and end-to-end real-time computing, the cloud is not
able to capture the actual sequence of the measurement from different sensor
nodes.

Therefore, the incorporation of IoT into measurement instruments should also check for possibility of aging and faulty
sensors. For instance, we can automate the process to check
the normality of residuals to detect bias and systematic errors.

Privacy
An IoT system by definition is a networked system, with the
measurement data traveling across a network. Hence, privacy
becomes a major concern, not just for I&M but for any other application of IoT as well. We mentioned earlier that the integrity
of the measurement data in an IoT system can be protected by
blockchaining. If the measured data needs to be kept private,
for example data coming from a patient's wearable medical sensor which should only be seen by the person's doctor, then the
blockchain must be configured to control when and how a third
party intercepting or receiving the data can actually access it. Security and privacy must therefore be built into the design of the
measurement system. Adding security and privacy later as an
after-thought will make intrusion into the system easier.

monitoring (SHM) is one of the applications that makes full use
of the continuous and wide area measurements features provided by IoT. IoT enabled SHM improves safety for humans
while reducing the costs of continuous structural monitoring [9]. Besides wide area measurements, IoT is also capable
of providing continuous and thorough measurements. Fisher
et al. used IoT approach to perform nonintrusive and highspeed measurement of jet-engine exhaust, and in the process,
they developed a method to mitigate the impact of lost packets during the measuring process [10]. Yang et al. highlighted
the potential of using IoT in developing smart and automated
seaports, and they developed crane health structure monitoring with built-in features such as localization to improve safety
and monitoring efficiency [11].

Identification and Indoor Positioning

Our literature review, which was restricted to IoT literature
published in only IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Measurement and IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, showed that currently IoT is being applied to I&M in the
following topics:

The positions of sensors are crucial information especially
when IoT is used to provide simultaneous wide area measurement. The origin of the measurement must be correctly
identified. Thus, to prevent data labeling error caused by hardcoding the position into the sensor, it is best for sensor nodes
to be able to locate their own position. The importance and
usefulness of using RFID for product identification and position of the product in a manufacturing line is highlighted by
Murofushi et al. in [12]. From their study, despite the maturity of RFID technology for product identification, using RFID
for indoor positioning is yet to be a solved research problem
[12]. Bellagente et al. in [13] compared BLE Beacon and ultra-wide-band (UWB) based positioning techniques in a real
environment. Despite the fact that UWB based positioning
techniques can provide higher positioning accuracy, the BLE
beacon has lower deployment cost and the BLE technology is
readily available in many commercial smartphones [13].

Monitoring and Sensing

IoT Architecture

The nature of IoT helps to automate the measurement process.
Therefore, there are a number of works that use IoT for monitoring and sensing. For instance, Mois et al. [8] developed a
complete IoT solution that monitors ambient conditions of
indoor spaces at remote locations. They showed their proposed solution is capable of capturing and visualizing wide
area measurements simultaneously from various devices by
simply using IEEE 802.11 b/g standards [8]. Structural health

One of the important objectives of having a proper IoT architecture is to ensure the success of future expansion of an IoT
system. Cai et al. [14] studied IoT-architecture for sensing and
local data processing specifically for ambience intelligence in
environments such as smart homes, intelligent vehicles and
healthcare. They emphasized the benefits of local computing
for IoT, especially dealing with privacy-sensitive and timecritical operations. Network latencies among devices in smart

IoT in Today's I&M

24	

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

May 2020



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3

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