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systems are crucial for many IoT applications. Silva et al. investigated network latencies of different technologies and proposed
a middleware for IoT solutions which is fully compatible with
existing networking technologies such as WiFi [15]. Ooi et al.
showed that measurements from different sensors of a same
measurand may be correlated and such correlation may be
used for detecting faulty and abnormal sensors [16].

Wireless Connectivity Evaluation
In terms of energy consumption and coverage, many existing wireless connectivity technologies are yet to be suitable
for many IoT applications. IoT applications often need to
provide continuous and thorough as well as simultaneous
wide area measurements. Although narrow-band-IoT can
provide long range and low-cost communication for IoT solutions, their performance and availability are rather limited
compared to communication technologies such as cellular
networks, which on the other hand are more power hungry.
Rizzi et al. evaluated the performance of LoRaWAN for wide
area distributed measurement applications and highlighted
the challenges of timestamp uncertainty of events due to network latencies and large area unsynchronized clocks [17]. Lee
et al. designed and evaluated the performance of LoRa mesh
network system for large-area monitoring to overcome the
need to have dense deployment of LoRa gateways to ensure
indoor coverage, especially in urban areas [18]. On wide area
connectivity, Palisetty et al. developed a multicarrier scheme
to provide real-time implementation for narrow-band-IoT
[19]. At the application layer, Ferrari et al. estimated the delay
of industrial IoT applications based on messaging protocols,
specifically on MQTT over intercontinental links in their evaluation process [20]. Mois et al. in [21] analyzed and evaluated
three different IoT-based wireless sensor implementations for
environmental and ambient monitoring. They included wireless sensor nodes that use UDP-based WiFi communication,
HTTP on TCP-based WiFi communication and also Bluetooth
Smart communication. They concluded that although WiFi
consumes more energy, it is more cost effective to develop IoT
solutions due to its popularity and existing infrastructure.

Healthcare
Healthcare applications are high-value applications. Monitoring patient health continuously is crucial as it involves
human life. Unfortunately, without IoT the monitoring process is laborious and not cost effective. There are times that
certain measurement instruments are expensive. Russell et al.
in [22] used sensory substitution and IoT to replace pressure
sensors with sound and temperature sensors for recognizing
a patient's chair posture. Bassoli et al. explored the potential of
using WiFi to develop active and assisted living solutions to
improve conditions of life for the older adults [23]. They concluded that although WiFi consumes more energy compared
to technologies such as ZigBee, because of the high adoption of
WiFi technology, it greatly simplifies system development and
the deployment process in terms of cost, scalability and user
acceptance [23].
May 2020	

Energy Management
The aim of energy management is to reduce CO2 emission and
the objective of energy management is to ensure productivity
is not affected by the energy consumption reduction process.
Thus, it is important to monitor the load of appliances for more
effective, safe, and efficient electric distribution. For instance,
Yu et al. in [24] developed nonintrusive, real-time electrical
appliance load monitoring for smart homes to allow users to
better understand energy usage as well as detect abnormal operations of electrical appliances for safety purposes. Besides
that, IoT sensors themselves consume power too, and having
batteries in sensor nodes means that these sensor nodes require maintenance. Interestingly, there is work done by Porto
et al., which proposed incorporating wireless power transfer
capabilities into measurement instrumentation [25]. Despite
the fact that it works in labs, the distance and efficiency of wireless power transfer is still far from practical [25].

Discussion and Opportunities for Future
Work
In this article, we highlighted the benefits of having IoT as part
of measurement instruments and also the caveats of incorporating IoT into measurement systems. From our I&M literature
study, we found that:
◗◗ Monitoring and sensing is the most widely used application of IoT in I&M, comprising 30% of the papers we read.
◗◗ The majority of the works focus on extending conventional measurement systems with IoT to achieve
continuous and wide-area monitoring. However, other
than sensing, IoT also encompasses actuators. In the I&M
domain, almost none of the papers we read mention postmeasurement analysis or suggest improvements that
may be made to IoT systems.
◗◗ There are a number of papers focusing on measuring the
latencies of IoT networks. The objective of these works is
to identify the limitation of the IoT in terms of data transmission rate and coverage. Unfortunately, many of them
assume that IoT is limited to homogenous networks
which is not completely true. One of the roles of an IoTgateway is to bridge devices that use different network
technologies and are designed for future protocol expansions in mind.
◗◗ To our surprise, none of the papers highlighted security concerns. End-to-end communication among IoT
devices can be encrypted, but due to the nature of wireless communication, IoT is also prone to side-channel
attacks. Attackers may listen to the presence of wireless
packets to infer the state of an IoT system despite not
being able to see the content of the packet. More work is
needed in this area, and it is crucial for security to be built
into the core design of the system, and not added later as
an after-thought.
IoT indeed promises many attractive advantages for
measurement instrumentation. Besides automating the measurement process, it improves the measurement process in
terms of providing continuous and thorough measurements,

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	25



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-3

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