Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-6 - 26

Fig. 6. (a) 1992 and (b) 1996 comparison. Blue band (L-band) response, on left: tone index (abscissae) versus pixels (ordinates) and related pixels' histogram; On
right: histogram plots exhibits image gray levels (abscissae) versus pixels (ordinates).

around 250 as abscissae; that is a clear indication, in L-band, of
an increasing presence of forest we did not have in 1992. This
peak is captured by the SAR sensor, thanks to reflectance as per
Fig. 2. Moreover, there is a huge difference in ordinates in Fig
6a and Fig. 6b due to the fact to in 1992 (Fig. 6a), we had more
bare soil with rocky materials that produces high reflectance
close to cement (Fig. 2), while in Fig. 6b we have major green
coverage with less reflectance (Fig. 2). There is difference of

one order in ordinates. We are not still able to directly retrieve
the amount of the increase but only the quality.
The amount of change in the L-band is indicated in Table
1 (conclusion section) through an overlapping with a local
GIS-based map, where GIS stands for geographic information
system. Given the fact in this section we are facing a qualitative aspect of changing land characteristics after four years,
we must introduce, dealing with deep learning, an indicator of

Table. 1 - Quantitative measurement of changes in L-band for classification
1992
Agricultural areas

1996

Net change

ha

%

ha

%

5.20

4.64

3.70

3.30

ha
-1.5

Transitional woodlands

11.30

10.08

10.20

9.10

Grasslands

23.43

20.91

20.73

18.50

-2.7(*)

Forest

72.10

64.35

77.40

69.08

+5.3

Total

23.43

20.91

20.73

18.50

26	

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

-1.1

September 2020



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-6

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