Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-9 - 12

assessment point of view and characterization of the temporal behavior of different signals (day/night, days over week/s,
type of technology, etc.). Namely, because the RF range is active 24 hours a day, the monitoring process should cover the
same period of time, as well. Because there is no a 'referent
day' to compare the exposure with, it has been very important
to find a sustainable measure regarding the exposure expression. To achieve this, a kind of cumulative (integral-based)
measure of the whole day exposure (and from day-to-day) is
needed. Significant ratios of the EFSs were found between the
maximum and minimum instantaneous as well as between the
maximum and minimum 6-minute averaged ones. Therefore,
great variability in the results may occur during the day. By applying the 24 hour integral-based measure on a 24 hour dataset
of measurements, the variability of daily exposure could stay
within ±20% of the mean week value.
Although both the narrowband and dosimetric measurements are sometimes difficult to execute, time-consuming and
expensive in some cases, they remain necessary for the validation of true exposure assessment, turning emissions into
something objective that, when presented to the public in an
understandable format, help diminish the unawareness and
helplessness of the public. Consequently, the scientific community should continue to work on this topic to improve
measurement methods and data interpretation that aim to
provide reliable results of human exposure. That is even more
important if we also consider the imminent incoming 5G
technology.

[8]	 M. Röösli, P. Frei, J. Bolte et al., " Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed
study protocol, " Environ. Health, vol. 9, no. 23, 2010.
[9]	 J. F. B. Bolte and T. Eikelboom, " Personal radiofrequency
electromagnetic field measurements in the Netherlands: exposure
level and variability for everyday activities, times of day and
types of area, " Environ. Int., vol. 48, pp. 133-142, 2012.
[10]	D. Šuka, P. Pejovic´, and M. Simic´-Pejovic´, " Application of timeaveraged and integral-based measure for measurement results
variability reduction in GSM/DCS/UMTS systems, " Radiat. Prot.
Dosimetry, ncz154, 2019.
[11]	 " EN 50413 - Basic standard on measurement and calculation
procedures for human exposure to electric, magnetic and EM
fields (0 Hz-300 GHz), " European Committee for Electrotechnical
Standardization (CENELEC), 2008.
[12]	A. Lahham, A. Sharabati, and H. Al Masri, " Assessment of public
exposure from WLANs in the West Bank Palestine, " Radiat. Prot.
Dosimetry, vol. 176, pp. 434-438, 2017.
[13]	A. Manassas, A. Boursianis, T. Samaras, and J. N. Sahalos,
" Continuous electromagnetic radiation monitoring in the
environment: analysis of the results in Greece, " Radiat. Prot.
Dosimetry, vol. 151, pp. 437-442, 2012.
[14]	S. M. Mann, " Assessing personal exposures to environmental
radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, " Comptes Rendus Physique,
vol. 11, pp. 541-555, 2010.
[15]	W. Joseph, L. Verloock, F. Goeminne, G. Vermeeren, and L.
Martens, " Assessment of RF exposures from emerging wireless
communication technologies in different environments, " Health
Physics, vol. 102, pp. 161-172, 2012.

References

[16]	K. H. Joyner, M. J. van Wyk, and J.T. Rowley, " National surveys of

[1]	 " Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric,
magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz), "

radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa, "
Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, vol. 158, pp. 251-262, 2014.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection,
Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 494-522, 1998.
[2]	 " Model legislation for electromagnetic fields protection, " World
Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.
[3]	 " EN 50492 - Basic standard for the in-situ measurement of
electromagnetic field strength related to human exposure
in the vicinity of base stations, " European Committee for
Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), 2008.
[4]	 " IEC 62232:2017 Standard | Determination of RF field strength,
power density and SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication
base stations for the purpose of evaluating human exposure, "

Giovanni Betta (M'92-SM'01) (betta@unicas.it) joined the
University of Cassino, Italy in 1992 and became a Full Professor of electrical and electronic measurements in 1999, was
Dean of the Faculty of Engineering from 2003 to 2012, and
has been a Rector since 2015. He received the M.S. degree in
electrical engineering from the University of Naples, Italy.
His current research interests include nondestructive testing,
image-based measurement systems, sensor realization and
characterization, and measurement systems for fault detection and diagnosis.

International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland,
Aug. 2017.
[5]	 Z. Mahfouz, A. Gati, D. Lautru, M.-F. Wong, J. Wiart, and V. F.
Hanna, " Influence of traffic variations on exposure to wireless
signals in realistic environments, " Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 33, no.
4, pp. 288-297, 2012.
[6]	 A. Bernieri, G. Betta, G. Cerro, G. Miele, and D. Capriglione,
" Experimental comparison of extrapolation techniques for
24-hours electromagnetic fields human exposure evaluation to
UMTS and LTE base stations, " in Proc. 2019 IEEE Int. Symp. Meas.

Domenico Capriglione (M'04) (capriglione@unicas.it) is currently an Associate Professor of Electrical and Electronic
measurements with the University of Cassino and Southern
Lazio, Italy. His current research interests include measurements on RF and telecommunication systems, DSP-based
measurement systems, and measurement of electromagnetic
compatibility. Since 2016, Domenico has served as the Chair
of the IEEE I&M Technical Committee TC-37: Measurements
and Networking.

Networking (M&N), pp. 1-6, Jul. 2019.
[7]	 " Exposure index assessment v1, " LEXNET deliverable D3.1.
[Online]. Available: http://www.lexnet-project.eu/.
12	

Gianni Cerro (M'17) (gianni.cerro@unimol.it) is currently a Research Fellow at the Department of Medicine

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

December 2020


http://www.lexnet-project.eu/

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