Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-9 - 18

Fig. 6. (a) Wilkinson power divider transmission and reflection coefficients. (b) Transmission coefficient of the entire system.

is present, it means that dielectric characteristics of the structure where the sensor is embedded have changed, pointing
out the presence of damage. Moreover, the crack can also be localized by putting together split ring resonators with different
resonance frequencies. By using an ultra-wideband Wilkinson
power divider, only two access points have to be present in the
structure, one for transmitting the signal and the other for receiving. In this way, with a single measurement, the concrete
structure under examination can be monitored by using a time
domain transmission module.
For a practical realization of the system, one of the most
challenging issues to solve is understanding how many SSRs
are needed to achieve good system coverage, starting from the
3D geometry of the structure to be monitored. Moreover, once
the number of the SRRs is known, another challenging issue
concerns the optimization of the SRR resonance frequencies in
order to avoid overlaps among each resonator.
If a wireless communication is needed, e.g., if the system
is located in a place difficult to reach, like a high pillar of a
bridge, a module that communicates wirelessly with another
node could be used [33]. Moreover, such a configuration allows the implementation of a low power network without
critical issues [34]. In fact, while the EM SRR sensors are passive and therefore essentially low power, the signal generation
and acquisition module has a power consumption of the order of mW [34].
In particular, if more sensor networks are needed to monitor the structure (each one composed of a defined number of
SRRs), it will be possible to manage them using a multiplexer
to switch the signals. The multiplexer will be preceded by the
web-controlled signal generation and acquisition module. To
the best of the authors' knowledge, this kind of network is not
18	

currently available; therefore, its development can be an innovative contribution for the project.

References
[1]	 J. P. Lynch and K. J. Loh, " A summary review of wireless sensors
and sensor networks for structural health monitoring " The Shock
and Vibration Digest, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 91-128, Mar. 2006.
[2]	 S. Sony, S. Laventure, and A. Sadhu, " A literature review of
next-generation smart sensing technology in structural health
monitoring, " Struct. Control Health Monitoring, vol. 26, e2321, 2019.
[3]	 W. Ostachowicz, R. Soman, and P. Malinowski " Optimization
of sensor placement for structural health monitoring: a review, "
Structural Health Monitoring, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 963-988, 2019.
[4]	 M.A.-B. Abdo, Structural Health Monitoring, History, Applications
and Future. A Review Book. Open Science, 2014.
[5]	 M. Abe, " Structural monitoring of civil structures using vibration
measurement: current practice and future, " LNAI 1454 Artificial
Intelligence in Structural Engineering, pp. 1-18, 1998.
[6]	 D. Balageas, C.-P. Fritzen and A. G├╝emes, Structural Health
Monitoring. London, UK: ISTE Ltd, 2006.
[7]	 H. Choi, S. Choi, and H. Cha, " Structural health monitoring
system based on strain gauge enabled wireless sensor node, " in
Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Networked Sensing Syst., pp. 211-214, 2008.
[8]	 K. Maenaka, " MEMS inertial sensors and their applications, " in
Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Networked Sensing Syst., pp. 71-73, 2008.
[9]	 F. G. Baptista and J. V. Filho, " A new impedance measurement
system for PZT-based structural health monitoring, " in IEEE
Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 3602-3608, Oct. 2009.
[10]	J. Niu, Z. Deng, F. Zhou, Z. Cao, Z. Liu, and F. Zhu, " A structural
health monitoring system using wireless sensor network, " in
Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Wireless Commun., Networking and Mobile
Computing, 2009.

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

December 2020



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