Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-9 - 33

Table 5 - Experimental results obtained for each factorial point design of the CCD analysis
SNR

SF

BW

CR

TX

LOST
PACKETS

9

-10

8

125

1

10.000

100

10

-10

8

125

3

10.000

20

11

-10

8

500

1

10.000

3066

30.66

12

-10

8

500

3

10.000

1220

12.2

13

-10

10

125

1

10.000

5

0.05

14

-10

10

125

3

10.000

4

0.04

15

-10

10

500

1

10.000

40

0.4

16

-10

10

500

3

10.000

18

0.18

17

0

8

125

1

10.000

16

0.16

18

0

8

125

3

10.000

8

0.08

19

0

8

500

1

10.000

948

9.48

20

0

8

500

3

10.000

185

1.85

21

0

10

125

1

10.000

5

0.05

22

0

10

125

3

10.000

5

0.05

23

0

10

500

1

10.000

5

0.05

24

0

10

500

3

10.000

2

0.02

RUNS

SNR=-15 dBm to the maximum value of SNR=5, with SF, Bw,
CR set to own mean value, SF=9, Bw=250, CR=2. These experiments, together with those of the center points shown in
successive Table 6, highlight the negative degradation effect
of the SNR on the number of lost packets. The number of lost
packets is 0% when SNR is greater than zero (SNR>=5); 16.39%
on average when SNR is -5 dB, and 34.6% in presence of SNR
equal to -15 dB, i.e., this last case is also the worst case among
all those analyzed.
Runs 3 and 4 highlight that by increasing the SF from low
levels (SF=7) to high levels (SF=11), may notably reduce the

% LOST
PACKETS
1
0.2

number of lost packets, also in presence of AWGN level equal
to -5 dBm. Indeed, in this experiment, the lost packets decrease
from 26.1% to 0.1%, which is close to zero, when SF increases
from 7 to 11.
On the contrary, by considering runs 5 and 6, the lost packets number grows dramatically from 0.05% to 26.2% when the
SNR and SF are unchanged (SNR= -5 dB, SF=9) and the bandwidth increases from the minimum value of 125 kHz to the
maximum value of 500 kHz. It is worth noting that the larger
the bandwidth, the worse the communication, according to
LoRa basic specifications.

Table 6 - Experimental results obtained for each star point design of the CCD analysis
SNR

SF

BW

CR

TX

LOST
PACKETS

% LOST
PACKETS

25

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.768

17.68

26

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.580

15.8

27

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.820

18.2

28

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.605

16.05

29

-5

9

250

2

10.000

2.075

20.75

30

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.670

16.7

31

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.445

14.45

32

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.356

13.56

33

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.728

17.28

34

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.425

14.25

35

-5

9

250

2

10.000

2.075

20.75

36

-5

9

250

2

10.000

1.120

11.2

RUNS

December 2020	

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	33



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