Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-9 - 9

that the allowed emission limits are not overcome. The situation for Operator 2 is different. In this case (Fig. 5), the results
have an expected trend. The overestimation is almost always
ensured, and during nighttime the actual E-field decreases
while the extrapolated one remains high because of the constant trend of PBCH. Operator 3 shows the reference E-field
measurement decreasing during nighttime, but it still presents
several problems during daytime where the overestimation is
not ensured and there are several points where the extrapolated field is under its reference value (Fig. 6).

Fig. 4. Comparison between the reference and extrapolated E-Field in
6-minute interval measurements for Operator 1 at 800 MHz LTE downlink
bandwidth.

Fig. 5. Comparison between the reference and extrapolated E-field in
6-minute interval measurements for Operator 2 at 800 MHz LTE downlink
bandwidth.

Fig. 6. Comparison between the reference and extrapolated E-field in
6-minute interval measurements for Operator 3 at 800 MHz LTE downlink
bandwidth.

Different behaviors can be observed for different operators. The trends of Operator 1 are quite similar (Fig. 4), i.e., the
PBCH follows the power behavior of the other subchannels.
This result appears as counterintuitive (PBCH should have
maximum and constant power) and it has a drawback: there
are some temporal zones where the extrapolated E-field is not
able to overestimate the reference E-field, meaning that, in this
case, the extrapolation technique is poorly reliable to ensure
December 2020	

Measurement Campaign and Instrument Set-up
for 3G Measurements
To obtain the results of temporal variations of EFS, the measurement campaign was conducted in the Engineering
building at the University of East Sarajevo for two weeks (January 2020). The measurements were recorded 24 hours a day.
In particular, the second week of measurements aimed to
check the repeatability of exposure assessment (at the end, the
measurement campaign resulted in the approximately 120,960
samples). The observed location was of an indoor type and in
the far-field region. During the measurement campaign, we
observed combined temporal behavior in the 3G UMTS band
(2110 to 2170 MHz) for three mobile operators, whose names,
due to privacy, are not provided in the paper. The first step was
to find the spot of a maximum EFS in the room. For that purpose, we conducted the 6-minute measurements (at height of
1.5 m above the floor level) using the max-hold approach with
the SA R&S FSH6 (100 kHz to 6 GHz) and triaxial R&S TSEMF-B1 measuring probe (30 MHz to 3 GHz, dynamic range
1 mVm−1 to 100 Vm−1). Settings of SA for exposure assessment
using max-hold setting were as follows: detector mode RMS,
RBW 5 MHz, VBW = 3RBW, and sweep time 0.8 seconds. The
uncertainty of measurement for the EFS and the considered
setup is ±3 dB (-29% to 41%) for normal distribution. This
uncertainty represents the expanded uncertainty evaluated
using a confidence interval of 95% (thus estimated at the level
of twice the standard deviation, corresponding in the case of a
normal distribution, to a confidence level of 95%). The second
step considered continuous measurement with PEM EME Spy
140 (the PEM was placed on a wooden tripod at the position
of maximum found). EME Spy 140 (SATIMO, EMF Measurement & Simulation Tools, Brest, France) is a light and portable
dosimeter which performs continuous measurements of the
human exposure level to EMFs on 14 pre-defined frequency
bands. Measurements are done from a sensitivity of 5 mV/m
up to 5 V/m (with a dynamic range of 60 dB). It can store
around 80,000 measurements, with 4 to 255 seconds between
measurements, which can be downloaded to a PC. According to the manufacturer, the EME Spy 140 measures EFS with
a standard deviation, ranging from 0.4 dB (-4.5% to +4.7%, TV
4&5) to 2.0 dB (-20.6% to +25.9%, Wi-Fi 5G).
In particular, the measurement cycle was configured to be
10 seconds to collect a large number of data samples (8640 samples per day). According to the manufacturer of PEM, it has a
standard deviation for 3G UMTS band measurements of ±0.6

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	9



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 23-9

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