Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 11

essential to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the AI computational models. Reducing false-positive alerts that drain
the time and energy of healthcare workers is vital to sustaining
the usability of the real-time monitoring system. To this end,
there is a need to investigate reporting mechanisms that track
adverse events that can be used to identify and assess risks associated with sensor malfunctions. Another challenge is also
related to when the physiological changes may be subtle in the
short term and fail to be detected with existing sensors. To address this challenge, we must investigate methods/channels
for healthcare personnel to train the real-time system to detect
these events as they occur.

Measurement Integration of Elderly Monitoring
Systems
Monitoring systems consist of a wide range of sensing devices that generate a large volume of measurement data. Most
companies that produce these devices are designing their hardware and software components leading to a siloed ecosystem.
It becomes a challenging prospect to integrate various measurement data into one monitoring process while at the same
time trying to overcome the issue of redundant measurements
associated with device fragmentations. Therefore, we need research that addresses the issue of sensor selection optimization
to avoid redundant data measurement without jeopardizing
critical information. Furthermore, sensor devices in monitoring systems usually use known standards, but they are not
necessarily compatible with other devices from other companies, which in turn leaves the user with few options. Hence,
we need research on platform unification that allows the integration of various devices to a common stack to overcome
proprietary design models that are currently in the market.
Such a platform will be used to develop and adopt a unified
process of integrating measurement data with only needed
sensor devices. Measurement integration is also concerned
with the underlying transmission/communication network.
Although IoT is a natural choice for monitoring systems, it
consists of heterogeneous networks. Therefore, we need further research on mechanisms that bridge them together and
ensure that measurement data is integrated correctly.

there are varying recommendations for disinfecting surfaces
or self-hygiene but not an approved standard with specific
metrics to measure. It is necessary to investigate the development of such standards and the associated metrics to design
novel disinfection instrumentation and measurement methods. Finally, further research is required to integrate infection
prevention and control surveillance into elderly monitoring
systems to avoid future crises.

Privacy and Security Metrics
Monitoring systems collect sensitive and confidential information about people and their environments. Therefore, they
put people at risk of privacy and security breaches. There is
always a debate concerning the balance between accessing
private data and service benefits. Quantifying and measuring
the trade-off is a challenge that requires attention from researchers. Currently, there is a countless number of protection
mechanisms that apply to the different levels of the monitoring system to protect it from unlawful attacks. However, the
final stop of the data is in the hand of healthcare providers who
must access it to offer services. To this end, the recommendation for future research is to investigate emerging blockchain
mechanisms as a means of ensuring that only people approved
by the data owners have access to the data.

References
[1]	 R. Gibbard. " Sizing up the challenge: meeting the demand for
long-term care in Canada, " The Conference Board of Canada,
Nov. 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.cma.ca/sites/
default/files/2018-11/9228_Meeting%20the%20Demand%20
for%20Long-Term%20Care%20Beds_RPT.pdf.
[2]	 B. Ooi and S. Shirmohammadi, " The potential of IoT for
instrumentation and measurement, " IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag.,
vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 21-26, May 2020.
[3]	 S.A., Khowaja, B.N. Yahya, and S. Lee, S. " CAPHAR: contextaware personalized human activity recognition using associative
learning in smart environments. " Hum. Cent. Comput. Inf. Sci., vol.
10, no. 35, 2020.
[4]	 S. Shirmohammadi, K. Barbe, D. Grimaldi, S. Rapuano, and
S. Grassini, " Instrumentation and measurement in medical,
biomedical, and healthcare systems, " IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag.

Measurement Standards for Infection Prevention
and Control
Our study of the open literature reveals that there is little research work in infection control detection beyond hospital
settings. Recently, governments initiated various protocols
and policies to ensure best practices for performing infection surveillance and hygiene tracking. The main challenge
is to transform these recommendations and guidelines into
metrics to measure the level of compliance. For example, we
need research that focuses on developing testing metrics of
respiratory specimens to detect infection among seniors and
healthcare personnel. Researchers must also investigate novel
mechanisms to automate the recommended precautionary
procedures and protocols that must be followed when COVID-19 cases are discovered among seniors. Furthermore,
April 2021	

vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 6-12, Oct. 2016.
[5]	 D. R. Seshadri, E. V. Davies, E. R. Harlow, J. J. Hsu et al.,
" Wearable sensors for COVID-19: a call to action to harness our
digital infrastructure for remote patient monitoring and virtual
assessments, " Frontiers in Digital Health, vol. 2, Jun. 2020. [Online].
Available: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fdgth.
2020.00008.
[6]	 R. Johnson, G. R. Tsouri and E. Walsh, " Continuous and
automated measuring of compliance of hand-hygiene procedures
using finite state machines and RFID, " IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag.
vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 8-12, Apr. 2012.
[7]	 A. Khamis, B. Kusy, C. T. Chou, M. McLaws and W. Hu,
" Poster abstract: a weakly supervised tracking of hand hygiene
technique, " in Proc. 19th ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. Inform. Processing in
Sensor Networks (IPSN), pp. 331-332, 2020.

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	11


https://www.cma.ca/sites/default/files/2018-11/9228_Meeting%20the%20Demand%20for%20Long-Term%20Care%20Beds_RPT.pdf https://www.cma.ca/sites/default/files/2018-11/9228_Meeting%20the%20Demand%20for%20Long-Term%20Care%20Beds_RPT.pdf https://www.cma.ca/sites/default/files/2018-11/9228_Meeting%20the%20Demand%20for%20Long-Term%20Care%20Beds_RPT.pdf https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fdgth.2020.00008 https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fdgth.2020.00008

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 81
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 82
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 83
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 84
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 85
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 86
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 87
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 88
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 89
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 90
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 91
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 92
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 93
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 94
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 95
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 96
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 97
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 98
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 99
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 100
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 101
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 102
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 103
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 104
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 105
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 106
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 107
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 108
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 109
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 110
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 111
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 112
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 113
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 114
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 115
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 116
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 117
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 118
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 119
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 120
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 121
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 122
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 123
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 124
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 125
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 126
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 127
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 128
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 129
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 130
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 131
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 132
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/instrumentation-measurement-magazine-25-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com