Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 116

worst-case scenario which is full load and velocity for the experimental results.

References
[1]	 M. Karpenko and N. Sepehri, " On quantitative feedback design
for robust position control of hydraulic actuators, " Control Eng.
Practice, vol. 18, pp. 289-299, 2010.
[2]	 A. Mirbeygi Moghaddam, A. Ghaffari, and A. Khodayari,
" Adaptive comfort-oriented vehicle lateral control with online
controller adjustments according to driver behaviour and lookahead dynamics, " in Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part K: J. Multi-Body
Dynamics, vol. 234, no. 2, pp. 272-287, 2020.
[3]	 A. Maddahi, W. Kinsner, and N. Sepehri, " Internal leakage
detection in electrohydrostatic actuators using multiscale analysis
of experimental data, " IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 65, no. 12,
pp. 2734-2747, 2016.
[4]	 Y. Chen, B. M. Vinagre, and I. Podlubny, " Continued fraction
expansion approaches to discretizing fractional order derivatives
- an expository review, " Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 38, pp. 155-170,
2004.
[5]	 A. Maddahi, N. Sepehri, and W. Kinsner, " Fractional-order
control of hydraulically-powered actuators: controller design and
experimental validation, " IEEE Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 24, no. 2,

Fig. 8. Experimental results for reference velocity of 0.07, weights of 0 kg,
163 kg and 367 kg.

pp. 796-807, 2019.
[6]	 A. Oustaloup, F. Levron, B. Mathieu, and F. M. Nanot,
" Frequency-band complex noninteger differentiator:
characterization and synthesis, " IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst. I:
Fundamental Theory and Applications, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 25-39, 2000.

Table 6 - RMS errors of experimental tests

and bounded Nelder-Mead algorithm with deterministic restarts

Weight (Kg)
Velocity ​
 m ​
 
 s 

0

163

[7]	 K. Butt, R. A. Rahman, N. Sepehri, and S. Filizadeh, " Globalized
for tuning controller parameters: method and application, "

367

Optimal Control Applications and Methods, vol. 38, pp. 1042-1055,
2017.
[8]	 G. K. Costa and N. Sepehri, " Four-quadrant analysis and system

0.05

0.0114

0.0114

0.0117

0.07

0.0173

0.0173

0.0176

design for single-rod hydrostatic actuators, " J. Dynamic Systems,
Meas. Control, vol. 141, no. 2, 2019.
[9]	 J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, " A simplex method for function
minimization, " Comput. J. vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 308-313, 1965.
[10]	J. Guin, " Modification of complex method of constrained

oscillations in the position trajectory. Furthermore, the RMS
errors for all experimental tests are compared in Table 6
which shows that: the controller is able to control the system
with insignificant RMS error of 0.0176 for worst case scenario (full load and velocity) without exceeding the input
voltage of approximately 4 V; and the consistent low RMS
error for different scenarios shows that the controller is robust towards disturbance, parameter uncertinies and model
changes.

Conclusions
This article reports a fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller
that is tuned using a modified Nelder-Mead (MNM) algorithm and implemented to control an excavator system. The
results of the simulations show that the tuned FOPID controller is able to control the system with insignificant RMS error
of 0.0132. This is validated by the RMS error of 0.0176 for the
116	

optimization, " Comput. J. vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 416-417, 1968.
[11]	G. Ren, G. K. Costa and N. Sepehri, " Position control of an electrohydrostatic asymmetric actuator operating in all quadrants, "
Mechatronics, vol. 67, 102344, 2020.

Amirreza Mirbeygi Moghaddam is currently working toward
the M.Sc. degree in mechanical engineering at the University
of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. He received the B.Sc. degree in mechanical engineering from K. N. Toosi University of
Technology, Tehran, Iran. His research includes autonomous
systems, deep learning, fractional control, fuzzy control and
optimization methods.
Witold Kinsner is Professor in the Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada where his research in the Fluid Power and
Telerobotics Research Laboratory involves cognitive systems,

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2021



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 81
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 82
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 83
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 84
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 85
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 86
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 87
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 88
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 89
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 90
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 91
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 92
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 93
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 94
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 95
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 96
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 97
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 98
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 99
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 100
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 101
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 102
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 103
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 104
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 105
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 106
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 107
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 108
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 109
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 110
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 111
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 112
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 113
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 114
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 115
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 116
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 117
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 118
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 119
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 120
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 121
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 122
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 123
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 124
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 125
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 126
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 127
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 128
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 129
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 130
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 131
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 132
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/instrumentation-measurement-magazine-25-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com