Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 122

Fig. 2. Simulation data flow.

engine interacts with Google Earth KML tool to visualize the
behavior of the vessels in real-time on Google Earth [4]. The
simulation data flow is shown in Figure 2.

Test Results
To demonstrate the adaptability of the decision-making
mechanism to track IUU ships, three real-world scenarios are considered. They are realistic scenarios purposely
designed by experts in the industry. They address typical
situations where a suspicious IUU vessel is detected by radar and satellite monitoring systems. A resource allocation
system identifies three coastguard vessels to participate in
the pursuit. The command is then passed to the proposed
RL-based algorithm to navigate the pursers in real-time to

try to intercept the suspicious vessel as quickly as possible;
preferably while it is still in action and within the Canadian marine boarders. The simulation parameter values
are listed in Table 1. The critic learning rate αc is set to a notably small value to compensate for the excessively large
initial tracking errors which are in the range of hundreds
of kilometers.
In Scenario 1, the three pursers (labeled 1, 2, and 3) are given
a command to intercept an IUU fishing incident. They are initially located 556, 367, and 289 km, respectively, apart from the
IUU ship. In this scenario, the T::P engine, which is in charge of
controlling the evading strategy of the evader ship, commands
the ship to evade with a constant speed towards the northeast
direction. Figure 3 shows the trajectories of the pursuers until

Table 1 - Simulation parameters
δ
0.99

Q

R

αa

αc

Δ

L

Nt

10-4I3×3

0.01

0.01

10-6

10-8

20

6,000

l

ℓ

Fig. 3. Intercepting the IUU ship (Scenario 1).
122	

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2021



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

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