Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 20

is being filtered by both the bedframe and mattress. The other
common sensor placement is between the bedframe and mattress, as in [18]. Fig. 2 presents these common PS placement
locations with respect to the bed.

When placing the PSM under the mattress, the mattress
filtering effects must be considered. Holtzman et al. investigated the effect of nine mattress types on a PSM's ability
to measure breathing rate [60]. Overall, the mattress acts as

Fig. 4. (a) Hospital bed frame that must be considered when selecting PS. (b)The fiber-optic PSM (S4 Sensors Inc., previously Tactex Controls Inc. [56]) placed
strategically to deal with bedframe adjustments.

Table 2 - Commercially available PSM
Pressure Sensitive Mat

Sensing Method

Description

Tekscan [61]

Piezoresistive

Has been used in internal fluid monitoring
applications

XSensor [62]

Capacitive ink

Has been used to monitor breathing and movement
in neonates

S4 Sensors (S4 Sensors Inc.)

Fiber-optic

Has been used in sleep monitoring, immobility and
mobility applications

Withings Sleep Tracking Mat
[13]

Single sensor pneumatic (air
pressure) mat

Small mat that is air filled, when force is applied to
the air chamber pressure is detected

Emfit QS [29]

Proprietary capacitive sensor

Single sensor that uses ballistocardiography based
on proprietary plastic technology that acts a
pressure sensitive capacitor

Teleheath Bed Sensor (BestBuy
Assured Living) [63]

Capacitive

Adaptive bed sensor that uses capacitive sensing
methods with some post processing causing it to
act as a switch indicating if there is someone in or
out of bed

Eightsleep [30]

Piezofilm based sensing

Sensors integrated into the mattress to measure
sleep quality and adjust temperature

Eight Sleep Mattress Cover [30]

Piezofilm based sensing

Cover material placed over an existing mattress

In-Bed Presence Detector [31]

Sensing method is unclear

Acts as a flat switch to identify if pressure is applied
or not (i.e., someone is in or out of bed)

Sleep Number Mattress [64]

Air pressure based

Integrated into a mattress

Rest Smart Mattress [65]

Force sensitive resistor

Integrated into a mattress

Beauty Rest Mattress Base [66]

Passive piezoelectric sensors

Two sensors located in a base unit placed under a
mattress

20	

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	

April 2021



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

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