Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 21

a filter and distributes applied pressure to the surrounding
area [60]. Simple sensor calibration procedures included with
most sensors can account for the majority of mattress effects
by effectively taring the sensor to zero pressure during set up
prior to use.
The surface beneath the sensor must also be considered.
Sensor measurements are typically more accurate when the
supporting surface is rigid and consistent. If the surface is not
rigid or if there are areas of no contact between the sensor and
the surface, the applied pressure will distribute to the surrounding area and localization and/or pressure information
may be lost.
The use of PSM in a hospital setting is a good example of
these issues. Typical hospital bed frames consist of multiple
plates that allow for bed adjustment (e.g., from lying to sitting
up) (Fig. 4). When placing a PSM on the bed frame, it is important to ensure that the mat does not bridge two plates. As
mentioned, this may lead to inconsistent measurements, and
it may also lead to sensor damage if the sensor being used is
not flexible. If the sensor is flexible, bending may cause a false
pressure peaks that are not at all related to the external pressure being applied.

sensing systems was presented as a starting point for sensor selection.

References
[1]	 " Population Projections for Canada (2018 to 2068), Provinces and
Territories (2018 to 2043), " Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada,
2019.
[2]	 M. Holtzman, A. Arcelus, I. Veledar, R. Goubran, H. Sveistrup,
and P. Guitard, " Force estimation with a non-uniform pressure
sensor array, " in Proc. IEEE Int. Instrum. Meas. Technol. Conf.
(I2MTC), pp. 1974-1979, 2008.
[3]	 Z. Zhang, U. Kapoor, M. Narayanan, N. H. Lovell, and S. J.
Redmond, " Design of an unobtrusive wireless sensor network
for nighttime falls detection, " in Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc
(EMBC), pp. 5275-5278, 2011.
[4]	 A. Nag and S. C. Mukhopadhyay, " Occupancy detection at smart
home using real-time dynamic thresholding of flexiforce sensor, "
IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4457-4463, Aug. 2015.
[5]	 M. Daher, J. Al Hage, M. E. B. El Najjar, A. Diab, M. A. Khalil, and
F. Charpillet, " Toward high Integrity personal localization system
based on informational formalism, " IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,
vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 4590-4599, Nov. 2019.
[6]	 S. Zhang et al., " Measuring the local and global variabilities in

Technical Considerations

body wway by nonlinear Poincaré technology, " IEEE Trans.

Once the purpose of measurement and measurement set up
have been established, one can select the appropriate sensor type. Properties that need to be considered include: drift;
creep; rise-time; data collection method and storage; physical sensing area temperature effects; sensor flexibility;
clinical suitability (i.e., is the system water proof and easily
disinfected); and long- term mechanical deterioration. Table 1
compares some of these characteristics of the different kinds of
PS discussed here.

Commercially Available Pressure
Monitoring Tools
In addition to the sensors used in research, companies have
started to include PS in commercially available smart-home
monitoring packages. Table 2 - describes a selection of commercially available products with which our group has
worked.

performances of a plantar pressure measurement system, " IEEE
Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 766-776, 2013.
[8]	 S. Cruz, D. Dias, J. C. Viana, and L. A. Rocha, " Inkjet printed
pressure sensing platform for postural imbalance monitoring, "
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 2813-2820, Oct. 2015.
[9]	 E. Marenzi, G. M. Bertolotti, and A. Cristiani, " Design and
development of a monitoring system for the interface pressure
measurement of seated people, " IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol.
62, no. 3, pp. 570-577, 2013.
[10]	P. V. B. Mendes, L. C. C. Gradim, N. S. Silva, A. L. C. Allegretti, D. C.
D. M. Carrijo, and D. M. C. da Cruz, " Pressure distribution analysis
in three wheelchairs cushions of subjects with spinal cord injury, "
Diabil. Rehabil. Assist. Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 555-560, Aug. 2019.
[11]	M. Wininger and B. A. Crane, " Prevalence of sensor saturation in
wheelchair seat interface pressure mapping, " Assist. Technol., vol.
27, no. 2, pp. 69-75, Apr. 2015.

Conclusion

[12]	Y. Chee, J. Han, J. Youn, and K. Park, " Air mattress sensor

This article focused on the implementation of PS as a remote
health monitoring tool that can be included in a smart-home
environment. The types of sensors that have been used in
PSM have been discussed and compared with respect to
their advantages and disadvantages. PS can be used either
individually or in an array, depending on what is being measured. For example, individual sensors with high sensitivity
can measure heart rate signals even when placed under a
mattress. In contrast, arrays can provide spatial information
that can be very important when the COP trajectory is desired. In addition to the number of sensors, the sampling rate
and surrounding bed set up must also be considered. Finally,
a brief overview of some commercially available pressure
April 2021	

Instrum. Meas., vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 4817-4824, Dec. 2019.
[7]	 B. Saggin, D. Scaccabarozzi, and M. Tarabini, " Metrological

system with balancing tube for unconstrained measurement of
respiration and heart beat movements, " Physiol. Meas., vol. 26, no.
4, pp. 413-422, Aug. 2005.
[13]	 " Sleep Tracking Mat, " Withings, accessed Aug. 2020. [Online].
Available: https://www.withings.com/ca/en/sleep.
[14]	A. Gaddam, K. Kaur, G. Sen Gupta, and S. C. Mukhopadhyay,
" Determination of sleep quality of inhabitant in a smart home
using an intelligent bed sensing system, " in Proc. IEEE Int.
Instrum. Meas. Technol. Conf. (I2MTC), pp. 1613-1617, 2010.
[15]	A. Arcelus, I. Veledar, R. Goubran, F. Knoefel, H. Sveistrup,
and M. Bilodeau, " Measurements of sit-to-stand timing and
symmetry from bed pressure sensors, " IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,
vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1732-1740, May 2011.

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	21


https://www.withings.com/ca/en/sleep

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 81
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 82
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 83
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 84
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 85
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 86
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 87
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 88
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 89
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 90
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 91
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 92
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 93
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 94
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 95
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 96
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 97
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 98
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 99
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 100
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 101
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 102
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 103
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 104
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 105
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 106
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 107
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 108
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 109
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 110
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 111
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 112
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 113
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 114
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 115
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 116
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 117
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 118
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 119
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 120
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 121
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 122
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 123
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 124
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 125
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 126
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 127
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 128
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 129
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 130
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 131
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 132
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/instrumentation-measurement-magazine-25-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com