Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 67

and RDSB, respectively. I can
obtain the power spectral
densities of the noise current sources - iG, iS, iD, iDB,
iSB, and iDSB using 4 kT / R
, where R is their corresponding resistance value
obtained through either dc
or ac measurement. Therefore, I only need to extract
the channel thermal noise
i d , induced gate noise i g ,
and their cross-correlation
i g id* . Based on the intrinsic admittance parameters
Y intr of the transistor, and
the intrinsic noise parameters, namely minimum
Fig. 6. Noise equivalent circuit of an intrinsic MOSFET suitable for high-frequency applications.
noise factor NFmin,intr, equivwhere Re( ) denotes the real part of the matrix elements. The
alent noise resistance Rn,intr,
and optimized source admittance Yopt,intr obtained in the pre- submatrices Cee, Cei, Cie, and Cii are 2 × 2 matrices.
vious section, I can conduct the noise source extraction as
Step 8: Calculate the correlation admittance matrix CY,internal
of the internal part in the equivalent circuit by:
follows [11]:
Step 1: Perform a parameter extraction based on Yintr and
other measured data to get all of the element values in the 	
CY,internal
 Di CY,intr  Cee Di†  C ie Di†  Di C ei  C ii	(40)
equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 6.
Step 2: Substitute NFmin,intr, Rn,intr, and Yopt,intr into (25), and where Di  D 1.
calculate the correlation chain matrix CA,intr of the intrinsic
Step 9: Convert the admittance matrix Yinternal of the internal
transistor.
part in Step 4 to its chain matrix Ainternal.
Step 10: Convert the correlation admittance matrix CY,internal
Step 3: Calculate the four-port admittance matrix Yexternal
of the external part in the equivalent circuit with port one de- to its correlation chain matrix CA,internal using Ainternal and the
fined between G and S, port two defined between D and B, port transformation matrix TAY in Table 3.
Step 11: Calculate the noise parameters NFmin, Rn, and Yopt of
three defined between Gi and Si, and port four defined between
Di and Si, respectively. I represent this 4 × 4 four-port admit- the intrinsic part in the equivalent circuit from the noise corretance matrix by:
lation matrix CA,internal by using (27)-(29).
Step 12: Calculate the power spectral densities of the chanY Yei 
2
2
Yexternal   ee
	
	(37) nel thermal noise id , induced gate noise ig , and their correlation
*
Yie Yii 
ig id by:





2

where the submatrices Yee, Yei, Yie, and Yii are 2 × 2 matrices.
	

id2 4 kTo Rn Y21,intr f ,	(41)
Step 4: Calculate the two-port admittance matrix Yinternal
of the internal part in the equivalent circuit with port one de2
2
*
 f ,	(42)
fined between Gi and Si, and port two defined between Di and 
ig2 4 kTo Rn Yopt  Y11,intr  2 Re  Y11,intr  Ycor Y11,
int r 

Si, respectively.
Step 5: Calculate the matrix D by:
and



	

D
Yei Yii  Yintr  .	(38)
1

Step 6: Convert the correlation chain matrix CA,intr to its
correlation admittance matrix CY,intr using Yintr and the transformation matrix TYA in Table 3.
Step 7: Calculate the correlation admittance matrix CY,external
of the external part by:
	

April 2021	

C
  ee
CY,external
 C ie

Cei 

 2 kT  Re Yexternal 	(39)
C ii 

	











*
ig id*  4 kTo Y11,intr  Ycor RnY21,
f 	(43)
int r

where Δf is 1 Hz in noise characterization, and Ycor is given by:
	

Ycor


NFmin  1
 Yopt .	(44)
2 Rn

Finally, studying the channel thermal noise id2 only without
considering the influences from the transconductance gm does
not show the full picture of technology evolution. Therefore, I
defined the noise sheet resistance Rnsh as [72]:

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	67



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 81
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 82
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 83
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 84
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 85
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 86
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 87
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 88
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 89
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 90
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 91
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 92
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 93
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 94
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 95
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 96
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 97
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 98
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 99
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 100
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 101
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 102
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 103
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 104
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 105
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 106
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 107
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 108
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 109
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 110
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 111
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 112
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 113
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 114
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 115
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 116
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 117
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 118
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 119
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 120
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 121
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 122
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 123
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 124
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 125
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 126
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 127
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 128
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 129
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 130
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 131
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 132
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/instrumentation-measurement-magazine-25-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com