Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 83

operation of the system is accomplished via an impedance
generator (developed by NoiseTech Microwaves) that is able
to maintain signal-source impedances at the LNA input within
the regions identified in Fig. 3. Initial (yet unpublished) measurements acquired using the system shown in Fig. 5 revealed
low measurement uncertainties in the noise parameters of an
LNA designed for an Arecibo telescope upgrade.

[10]	L. Belostotski and J. W. Haslett, " Evaluation of tuner-based noiseparameter extraction methods for very low noise amplifiers, " IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 236-250, Jan. 2010.
[11]	A. T. Sutinjo, L. Belostotski, B. Juswardy and D. X. C. Ung, " A
measure of well-spread points in noise wave-based source matrix
for wideband noise parameter measurement: the SKA-low
example, " IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 68, no. 5, pp.
1783-1793, May 2020.

Conclusion

[12]	M. Himmelfarb and L. Belostotski, ''On impedance-pattern

Obtaining accurate noise-parameter measurements for verylow-noise circuits is a lengthy process that requires multiple
measurements and long averaging to reduce uncertainty. The
selection of signal-source admittance (impedance) constellation points and noise-source calibration have been identified
as major paths to reducing measurement uncertainty due to
the repeatability of signal-source impedance generators and
the systematic offsets in the measurements. This paper has
provided an overview of some of the recent developments in
noise-source calibration and the selection of constellation impedances, and how they have made it possible to measure
noise parameters over wide bandwidths and at cryogenic
temperatures.

selection for noise parameter measurement,'' IEEE Trans. Microw.
Theory Techn., vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 258-270, Jan. 2016.
[13]	S. Van den Bosch and L. Martens, " Improved impedance-pattern
generation for automatic noise-parameter determination, " IEEE
Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1673-1678, Nov.
1998.
[14]	M. De Dominicis, F. Giannini, E. Limiti, and G. Saggio, " A novel
impedance pattern for fast noise measurements, " IEEE Trans.
Instrum. Meas., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 560-564, Jun. 2002.
[15]	S. Weinreb, " Low-noise cooled GASFET amplifiers, " IEEE Trans.
Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1041-1054, Oct. 1980.
[16]	I. Rolfes, T. Musch, and B. Schiek, " Cryogenic noise parameter
measurements of microwave devices, " IEEE Tran. Instrum. Meas.,
vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 373-376, Apr. 2001.

References

[17]	D. Russell and S. Weinreb, " Cryogenic self-calibrating noise

[1]	 L. Belostotski, " A calibration method for RF and microwave noise
sources, " IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory and Techn., vol. 59, no. 1, pp.
178-187, Jan. 2011.

parameter measurement system, " IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory
Techn., vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1456-1467, May 2012.
[18]	A. H. Akgiray, S. Weinreb, R. Leblanc, M. Renvoise, P. Frijlink,

[2]	 A. Sheldon, L. Belostotski, G. Messier and A. Madanayake,

R. Lai, and S. Sarkozy, " Noise measurements of discrete

" Impact of noise bandwidth on noise figure, " IEEE Trans. Instrum.

HEMT transistors and application to wideband very low-noise

Meas., vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 2662-2664, Jul. 2019.

amplifiers, " IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 61, no. 9, pp.

[3]	 H. Hillbrand and P. Russer, " An efficient method for computer

3285-3297, Sep. 2013.

aided noise analysis of linear amplifier networks, " IEEE Trans.
Circuits Syst., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 235-238, Apr. 1976.
[4]	 M. W. Pospieszalski, " On the measurement of noise parameters of
microwave two-ports, " IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 34,
no. 4, pp. 456-458, Apr. 1986.
[5]	 " IRE standards on methods of measuring noise in linear twoports.
1959, " Proc. IRE, vol. 48, pp. 60-68, Jan. 1960.
[6]	 F. Giannini, E. Bourdel, and D. Pasquet, ''A new method to
extract noise parameters based on a frequency- and time-domain

Alexander Sheldon (awsheldo@ucalgary.ca) received his
B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the University of
Calgary, Calgary, Canada in 2016 where he is now pursuing
a Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering. His research interests are in cryo-CMOS circuit design for radio astronomy
instrumentation. He is the Vice Chair of the IEEE Southern
Alberta Section Solid-State Circuits and Circuits and Systems chapter.

analysis of noise power measurements,'' IEEE Trans. Instrum.
Meas., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 261-267, Feb. 2008.
[7]	 A. Caddemi, A. Di Paola and M. Sannino, " Determination
of HEMT's noise parameters versus temperature using two
measurement methods, " IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 47, no. 1,
pp. 6-10, Feb. 1998.
[8]	 L. Boglione, J. Roussos, A. Caddemi, E. Cardillo and G. Crupi,
" Device noise parameters characterization: towards extraction
automation, " in Proc. Microwave Meas. Symp. (ARFTG), pp. 1-4, 2020.
[9]	 V. Adamian and A. Uhlir, ''A novel procedure for receiver noise
characterization,'' IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. IM-22, no. 2, pp.
181-182, Jun. 1973.

April 2021	

Leonid Belostotski (lbelosto@ucalgary.ca) is a Professor
with the University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, and the
Canada Research Chair in high-sensitivity radiometers and
receivers. He earned his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the
University of Alberta and his Ph.D. degree from the University of Calgary. His current research interests include RF
and mixed-signal ICs, high-sensitivity receiver systems, antenna arrays, and terahertz systems. He was a recipient of
the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques-11 Contest on
Creativity and Originality in Microwave Measurements in
2008.

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	83



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