Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 93

Intelligent Agricultural Machinery
Using Deep Learning
Gabriel Thomas, Simone Balocco, Danny Mann,
Avery Simundsson, and Nioosha Khorasani

A

rtificial intelligence, deep learning, big data, selfdriving cars..., these are words that have become
familiar to most people and have captured the
imagination of the public and have brought hopes as well as
fears. We have been told that artificial intelligence will be a
major part of our lives, and almost all of us witness this when
decisions made by algorithms show us commercial advertisements that specifically target our interests while using the web.
In this paper, the conversation around artificial intelligence focuses on a particular application, agricultural machinery, but
offers enough content so that the reader can have a very good
idea on how to consider this technology for not only other agricultural applications such as sorting and grading produce,
but also other areas in which this technology can be a part of a
system that includes sensors, hardware and software that can
make accurate decisions. Narrowing the application and also
focusing on one specific artificial intelligence approach, that of
deep learning, allow us to illustrate from start to end the steps
that are usually considered and elaborate on recent developments on artificial intelligence.

Agriculture's Importance
Agriculture plays a significant role in Canada's economy,
not only providing the world with food but also as an economic factor. From a recent release from Statistics Canada,
we can highlight that the sector contributed CA$49.0 billion
to Canada's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015, accounting for 2.6% of total GDP. Agriculture industries contributed
CA$25.1 billion or 51% of GDP in the sector, while agri-food
manufacturing industries contributed CA$23.9 billion or
49%. In the future, the industry is expected to grow at a considerable rate. " Canada's agriculture industry can generate
CA$11 billion for the country's GDP annually by 2030 if the
government invests in people and technology, " as indicated
in [1]. Canada is a global leader in agricultural production,
and by taking on research and development on new technologies, this can be of great benefit to the country and the
world, as this activity is vital and will help the country to remain competitive.
April 2021	

Technology's Impact in Agriculture
The impact of technology is an old story, dating back more
than 4000 years. Historians agree that the invention of the
plow has been a major factor on the transformation of humanity [2]. Agricultural engineers have contributed to numerous
advances in agricultural machinery during the past century,
and we are now beginning to see prototype autonomous agricultural machines being designed and built by companies
and universities around the world. To date, such vehicles are
not commercially available due to several limitations (for instance, difficulty operating in dynamic environments with
uneven terrain and the need for control systems to account
for the intricacies of specific tasks). As these obstacles are
overcome, humans will likely transition from machinery operators to a more supervisory role. The advent of precision
agriculture technologies in the past decades has increased
our ability to cope with on-farm and in-field variability and
to incorporate a much larger volume of information into management decisions [3]. Different sensors have been proposed
to incorporate information such as microphones, as in-cab operators can extract auditory information to quickly discern the
state of mechanical operation. In a supervisory role that may
be off-site, these channels of information may be harder to access without creative and innovative monitoring methods.
Many operations in agriculture are time-sensitive, and machinery breakdowns can be very costly in terms of both time
and service. It may be difficult to monitor operations with
many moving parts, such as a harvester, without the benefit
of sensory information. A few seconds of delay in processing information may be the difference between preventing a
failure and a serious harvest delay. Other sensors have been
used such as image cameras. In [4], researchers at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada used a support vector
machine to perform classification of potato diseases using images that were segmented, and features extracted from the
leaves were used as an input to the classifier. Features used
in [4] were based on color information and statistical features
obtained using a gray level co-occurrence matrix. Thus, computer vision and machine learning techniques did an excellent

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine	93
1094-6969/21/$25.00©2021IEEE



Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 81
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 82
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 83
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 84
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 85
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 86
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 87
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 88
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 89
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 90
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 91
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 92
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 93
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 94
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 95
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 96
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 97
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 98
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 99
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 100
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 101
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 102
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 103
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 104
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 105
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 106
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 107
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 108
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 109
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 110
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 111
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 112
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 113
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 114
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 115
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 116
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 117
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 118
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 119
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 120
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 121
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 122
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 123
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 124
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 125
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 126
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 127
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 128
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 129
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 130
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 131
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - 132
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-2 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/instrumentation-measurement-magazine-25-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/25-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-7
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com