Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 101

Fig. 8. Signal port voltage of the TCU speed sensor on 02 TB. (a) Without adding a protective earthing; (b) After adding a protective earthing.
Methods of Interference Suppression
Based on the above research, both the overvoltage and the
EMR from the PCA caused by the pantograph separation can
influence the TCU speed sensor. Firstly, as for the interference
from the overvoltage, the interference voltage (Us
) can be restrained
by reducing the overvoltage (U1), as shown in (1).
According to the simulation results, U1 is greatly reduced by
protective earthing. But the entire train has only one protective
grounding, which is installed between the 08 TB and 09
TB. Therefore, the new protective earthing can be installed on
the TBs with higher overvoltage to decrease Us
. The signal port
voltage of the TCU speed sensor is significantly reduced after
the protective grounding is added on the 02 TB, as shown
in Fig. 8b.
Secondly, the potential difference (U) between the cable
shield and core wire should be reduced to suppress the EMI
from the PCA based on (2). The Ni-Zn ferrite magnetic rings
can effectively reduce the value of U, and the specific research
has been detailed in another article by our team [15].
Critical Factors in the Research Method
Some critical factors need to be noted in this research
method.
Critical Factors for the Train Model
A complete train model is necessary to accurately analyze
the electromagnetic coupling mode of EMI to the speed sensor.
The model should include the power supply line, train
bodies, speed sensors, grounding systems, and the PCA.
Therefore, the following parameters need to be measured
accurately:
◗ Mode and voltage level of power supply to trains.
◗ Resistance/Inductance/Capacitance/Length of train
bodies, steel rail, and high voltage cable.
◗ Resistances and locations of train transformer, protective
earthing, and working earthing.
June 2021
Critical Factors for Measurements
◗ Calibrating instruments before measurement.
◗ Different antennas are required to measure EMI at different
frequencies, including Loop antennas (9 KHz ∼ 30
MHz), Bi-conical antennas (20 MHz ∼ 300 MHz), and Logperiodic
antennas (300 MHz ∼ 3 GHz).
◗ Different distances between the antenna and the measurement
object result in different interference intensity
because the actual measurement cannot guarantee that
every distance is the same. For ease of comparison, the
results can be converted to the values at the equivalent
10 m distance.
Critical Factors for Interference Suppression
Measures
◗ Identifying the locations of the grounding system to
prevent electrical damage to the bearings of the train after
the wrong addition of protective grounding.
◗ Selecting the most suitable Ni-Zn ferrite magnetic rings
for the varied types of speed sensor cables, which include
the size, frequency, numbers, and cost of the magnetic
ring.
Main Issues in the Extended Application
Although the comprehensive research method is well validated
on Chinese typical high-speed trains and speed sensors,
several differences and issues need to be noted to extend this
method to other cases.
Applied to Different Types of Trains
There are some differences in structure and related parameters
among different types of trains. The details of Chinese
typical high-speed trains are shown in Fig. 1 (sixteen train
bodies), Table 1, and Table 2, while trains of other countries are
quite different. For example, the trains of Japan and Germany
have eight train bodies, while the trains of Brazil have only
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
101

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