Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 105

inevitable for high-speed trains to enter the airport EM environment
protection zone. Therefore, it is necessary to measure
and evaluate whether high-speed trains near the airport impact
the communication and navigation signals. However, the
existing assessment process does not take into account the impact
of train speed on EMR of the PCA, which will lead to the
incomplete evaluation results.
In this article, we propose that a new influence factor, train
speed, be considered in the current airport EM environment
assessment system. Taking one high-speed railway as the measurement
object, we detail the practical measurement and EM
evaluation process. The results of this paper can improve the
existing assessment of the airport EM environment and provide
some guidelines for train speed limit to ensure the signal
quality of navigation.
Current Research Situation and
Deficiencies
In the context of Instrumentation and Measurement, the requirements
and evaluation methods for the EM environment
in airports have been widely proposed. International organizations,
such as the International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO), the International Radio Communication Committee
(CCIR) and the International Special Committee on Radio Interference
(CISPR) have paid adequate attention to the EMI
issue of aviation navigation and formulated a series of corresponding
protection measures [4], [5]. They stipulate that all
EM signals with strong radiation whose frequency is within
the frequency ranges of aviation navigation signals shall be
evaluated.
The frequency ranges of main aviation navigation signals
are as follows: Marker Beacon Station (75 MHz), Omnidirectional
Beacon Station (108∼117.975 MHz), Very-high-frequency
Communication System (118∼136.975 MHz), Glide Beacon Station
(328.6∼335.4 MHz), Range Finder (962∼1213 MHz), and
Secondary Radar (1030/1090 MHz). At the same time, the international
organizations proposed the basic process of EM
environmental assessment, including:
◗ Measuring the EMR of the EMI sources in the EM environment
protection zone of the airport.
◗ Analyzing the signal strength of the EMI sources and
aviation navigation.
◗ Referencing the relevant standards to determine whether
the aviation navigation signals will be disturbed by the
EMI sources.
◗ Proposing corrective programs to ensure flight safety.
The above process is sufficient to effectively evaluate the
general EMI sources like Broadcasting/Television Signals, Industrial/Scientific/Medical
Equipment, and High-voltage
power transmission lines, because the EMR strength of signals
emitted by these interference sources is almost constant.
Therefore, the evaluation conclusion obtained directly from
the measurement results is reliable. However, the intensity of
the EMR emitted by the high-speed train will change based on
train speed. Because the early trains are not so fast (less than
200 km/h), the effect of the train speed on EMR is weak. So the
June 2021
influence of speed factor is ignored in early EM environment
assessments. Nowadays, with the increase of the high-speed
train speed (more than 200 km/h), the pantograph and catenary
are separated more frequently, which enhances the
influence of train speed on EMR of the PCA [6]. Until now, it is
not taken into account in the existing evaluation process of potential
EMI aggressors on the airport navigation stations and
leads to the following consequences:
◗ An EM environment assessed as qualified becomes
unqualified after the nearby high-speed train speed
increases.
◗ The railway line needs to be adjusted if the result of the
EM environmental assessment is not qualified, which is
expensive and time-consuming. However, perhaps we
only need to reduce the speed of trains passing through
the EM environmental protection zone of the airport.
Therefore, it is necessary and important to study the influence
of train speed on the results of EM environmental
assessments. Firstly, in order to add the speed variable to the
existing evaluation system, it is necessary to understand the
influence of train speed on EMI of the PCA.
There are many studies on the influence of the speed on
the PCA. Some researchers used the arc simulation model or
experimental systems to study the effect of speed on duration,
voltage, current, power, area, and shape of the PCA [7],
[8]. Based on the improved arc model [9], the effect of the sliding
speed on the overvoltage and overcurrent produced by the
PCA has been investigated [10]-[12]. The EMI of the PCA was
measured and analyzed when the pantograph was separated
[13]-[15]. Moreover, the influence of the PCA of subways on
the airport navigation system was evaluated and researched
[16]. However, there are still some deficiencies in the study on
the influence of train speed on PCA radiation, since:
◗ Most of the existing research is based on self-made
experimental systems or simulation models, which are
somewhat different from the actual measurement results
of the train at the site.
◗ The main purpose of the existing research is to study the
effect of speed on the voltage and current of the PCA,
and the impact of the speed on the PCA radiation is not
considered in previous studies.
Analysis of the Effect of Train Speed on
the PCA
It is an extension and deepening of the previous work [7]-[16]
to introduce the train speed factor into the existing airport EM
environment assessment system. It is critical that the effect of
train speed on PCA radiation is analyzed and the relationship
between them is obtained.
Generation and Characteristics of the PCA
The PCA usually occurs at the common and neutral sections
of the power supply line. The reason for generating the PCA
at the common sections is that there are some fixed hardpoints
on the power supply line at these sections. When the
train passes through these points, the pantograph is briefly
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
105

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

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