Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 21

data as a reference, the STDEV of residual are within ±0.5 ns by
using precision products from different analysis centers. Meanwhile,
the stability of time difference between time keeping
laboratories was investigated, the Galileo PPP are of the same
magnitude with GPS PPP, and the stability of results can reach
E-15/day by using different precision products of IGS analysis
centers. The experiments show that the performance of Galileo
PPP can be used to carry out high precision time comparison.
At present, with the satellite launch of the Galileo system
and the construction of the global network, the application of
Galileo in international navigation and its fusion with other
navigation systems will be implemented in future applications.
Meanwhile, the Galileo PPP will provide support for
BIPM in UTC calculation.
Fig. 4. The time difference between UTC(NTSC) and UTC(ORB).
Acknowledgment
The authors would like to acknowledge the Royal Observatory
of Belgium for providing observation data of Galileo, and the
GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Centre for Orbit Determination
in Europe and the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory
for providing access to precise orbit and clock products.
References
[1] G. Petit, A. Harmegnies, F. Mercier et al., " The time stability of
PPP links for TAI, " in Proc. Joint Conf. IEEE Int. Frequency Control
and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS), 2011.
[2] " Circular_T 393, " FTP Server of the BIPM Time Department,
BIPM.
Fig. 5. The frequency stability of UTC(NTSC)-UTC(ORB) by Galileo PPP.
Conclusions
In this paper, the Galileo PPP time comparison experiment is
carried out, in which the observation data of pseudo-range
and carrier phase are sampled at interval of 30 s at NTSC and
ORB, and the precise products of clock and orbit published
by GFZ, CODE and SHAO are used. The experiment shows
that the standard deviation of time difference between two receivers
is less than 0.2 ns in the short baseline. In the Asia and
Eurasia long baseline time comparison, the time differences between
UTC(NTSC) and UTC(ORB) based on Galileo PPP have
the same trend with the GPS PPP. Using the GPS PPP time link
[3] W. Guang, S. Dong, W. Wu et al., " Progress of BeiDou time
transfer at NTSC, " Metrologia, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 175-187, 2018.
[4] W. Guang, J. Zhang, H. Yuan et al., " Analysis on the time transfer
performance of BDS-3 signals, " Metrologia, vol. 57, no. 6, Oct.
2020.
[5] Y. Ge, F. Zhou, T. Liu et al., " Enhancing real-time precise point
positioning time and frequency transfer with receiver clock
modeling, " GPS Solutions, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1-14, 2019.
[6] P. Steigenberger, U. Hugentobler, A. Hauschild et al., " Orbit and
clock analysis of Compass GEO and IGSO satellites, " J. Geodesy,
vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 515-525, 2013.
[7] Q. Baire, P. Defraigne and E. Pottiaux. " Influence of Troposphere
in PPP time transfer, " in Proc. IEEE Int. Frequency Control Symp.
Tau(s)
300
600
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
38400
76800
June 2021
Table 3 - The Allan standard deviation (ADEV) of UTC(NTSC)-UTC(ORB)
GPS PPP
6.2209E-14
4.0095E-14
2.3295E-14
1.6974E-14
1.1706E-14
9.7152E-15
8.3508E-15
6.9638E-15
5.1194E-15
GFZ
5.4127E-14
4.1828E-14
2.7873E-14
1.9537E-14
1.3728E-14
1.0516E-14
1.0453E-14
8.8341E-15
6.5071E-15
CODE
6.3337E-14
4.6638E-14
3.1080E-14
2.1774E-14
1.5679E-14
1.1612E-14
1.1058E-14
9.7962E-15
6.9281E-15
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
SHAO
1.5120E-13
9.6238E-14
5.4923E-14
3.4242E-14
2.1052E-14
1.2566E-14
9.8322E-15
7.8094E-15
5.2461E-15
21

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