Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 29

Functionalized Nanoparticles for
Characterization Through TEM
Images: Comparison Between Two
Innovative Techniques
Aimé Lay-Ekuakille, Moise Avoci Ugwiri, Marco Di Paola, Francesco Conversano,
Sergio Casciaro, Consolatina Liguori, and Vikrant Bhateja
T
he process of functionalization in the field of nanotechnology
is an important area of scientific and
technical activities. Functionalization involves different
expertise insofar as its complexity impacts physics,
chemistry, electronics, measurement and instrumentation,
and materials science. The research presented in this paper
proposes criteria for verifying silica nanoparticles in terms
of shape and dimensions based on processing transmission
electron microscopy (TEM) images related to the nanoparticles
using two techniques: monadic vision, mostly employed
in robotics, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) used in fluid
motion characterization through imaging. The first technique
is connected to the characterization of the dimensions
of objects by a robot having vision. The second, used in fluid
velocimetry, is related to motion. Here, we do not deal with
motion in the traditional meaning but during functionalization
droplets of materials are generally seen. So droplets can be
considered as quasi-motion from the main body to the outside
due to centrifugal forces. In any case, both algorithms yield to
shape and dimension determination for assessing the quality
of functionalization.
Introduction
Biomedical applications have been stimulating the use of
nanoparticles for diagnosis and drug delivery for treatment.
In the past, many constraints have limited their use, namely
adaptation to novel therapies, reduced in vivo lifetime of
drugs, high rated weight for transporting the drug to the desired
target, and unclear ranges of pathologies to be treated
[1]. Nanomedicine is one of the most important fields where
nanoparticles are making contributions that will accelerate
treatment [2]. Silica nanoparticles (SiNP) are being considered
for several biomedical applications thanks to their biocompatibility,
low toxicity, and scalable synthetic availability. They can
be fabricated by means of different procedures such as Stöber's
[3] and via the sol-gel method to be used as filler in polypropylene
(PP) composites [4]. The surface of silica can be modified
by reaction with organic chlorosilanes to improve the particles'
interaction with the hydrophobic polyolefin matrix.
June 2021
Particle size can be determined by analysis using, for example,
dilutions with ethanol and subsequent DLS (dynamic
light scattering). If we choose the Stöber particles, they exhibit
low absorption at 633 nm, making DLS suitable, and have
extremely high colloidal stability [5]. The development of
nanotechnology and its applications cannot occur without understanding
nanoparticle properties like their size (diameter)
and shape (imperfections). Imaging is one of most important
techniques to characterize functional nanoparticles in terms
of these parameters. Thus, computer imaging particle analysis
routines, that count and measure objects in digital images,
have emerged as an objective and rapid alternative to manual
techniques. To this aim, consistent scientific endeavors have
focused on the development of ad-hoc algorithms for automatic
segmentation of digital images of nanoparticles [6] [7].
The several approaches proposed in literature may be grouped
into traditional categories of Digital Image Processing: thresholding
and clustering techniques, histogram methods,
edge-based segmentation, region growing techniques and
probabilistic approaches, among others.
As mentioned, the size of nanomaterials impacts their application
possibilities. Hence, in scanning electronic microscopy
(SEM) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) functionalized
nanoparticles, we try to study the adhesion process,
which can be formed in big and small size nanomaterials after
the influence of external flux due to specific sources such
as neutronic (i.e., neutron transport). Moreover, dynamic light
scattering (DLS) is able to calculate in inherent ways the hydrodynamic
radius of particles [8], giving slightly larger values.
Monadic Technique
Monadic processing is one of the arithmetic and logic operations
used in image processing. It consists of operations
between an image and a constant. Despite tremendous techniques
that can be used nowadays, operations that involve
two or three images are referred to as dyadic and triadic, respectively
[9]. Monadic processing can be applied for a variety
of purposes and many situations. One of the examples is that
they can be used to add or subtract a bias value to make a
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
1094-6969/21/$25.00©2021IEEE
29

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - No label
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 81
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 82
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 83
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 84
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 85
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 86
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 87
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 88
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 89
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 90
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 91
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 92
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 93
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 94
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 95
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 96
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 97
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 98
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 99
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 100
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 101
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 102
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 103
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 104
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 105
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 106
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 107
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 108
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 109
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 110
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 111
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 112
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 113
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 114
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 115
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 116
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 117
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 118
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 119
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 120
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-4
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/24-1
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-9
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-8
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-6
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-5
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-2
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-3
https://www.nxtbook.com/allen/iamm/23-4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com