Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 31

Fig. 3. Original images used.
is steeper than it was before, and the saturation problem is
more pronounced now. So, as it can be seen in Fig. 4, there
are a lot of values which if we apply the function to x would
have a value much greater than 1. A limit or saturation was
set to the maximum value 1, which we have when we display
images in double precision numbers. It is clear now to
see the images in Fig. 4 that indeed have much more contrast,
but we can also see some areas where the pixels have
become saturated. In Fig. 5, the result obtained using PIV algorithm
is presented. In the example, three velocity fields
have been computed using the same interrogation window
size: 32*32 pixels.
The results present few spurious vectors, localized near the
center of vortices where intense velocity gradients are encountered.
It can be noticed that the results obtained do not exhibit
spurious vector on images area. From this very simple observation,
at 32*32 pixel size of the interrogation window, the PIV
algorithm provides better results compared to techniques such
as Image Deformation (ID) [12], for example, which is less sensitive
to velocity gradients. However, to tackle the issue of
the convenience of the method to be used (monadic or PIV), a
quantitative approach can be introduced by means of the error
diffusion [13] to extract a metric connected to it. The error diffusion
allows the algorithm to compute the quantization levels
Fig. 4. Output images after monadic processing.
Fig. 5. Results obtained from PIV processing algorithm.
June 2021
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
31

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

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