Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 53

Fig. 6. (a) Smartphone setup considered to measure the magnetic field at different elevations. (b) Dimensions of steel plate. (c) Neodynium magnets.
magnetic field. In each cracking scenario, one, two and three
cracks of the same size were created on the plate to study the effect
of single and multiple damage states on the magnetic field.
Fig. 6 presents the experimental setup. The magnetic field intensities
were measured at heights of 200 mm, 350 mm and
500 mm from the center of the intact and cracked steel plates.
Measurements were done for single, double and triple crack
cases. Fig. 7 shows the experimental design and damage progression
for steel plates with 14 mm cracks.
Table 2 presents the smartphone-based detected magnetic
field intensities for various defined damage states. As seen, the
magnetic field intensity increases as the size of the cracks increases.
This means that damage progression results in higher
magnetic field intensities. Comparing damage states for
each crack size (e.g., Damage
State 1, 2 and 3), it can
be observed that in most
cases, the magnetic field
intensity increases by introducing
more damage to
the plate. Furthermore, the
magnetic field decreases as
the distance of the smartphone
increases from the
steel plate surface. The results
are fairly consistent in
all scenarios, specifically at
a distance of 200 mm from
the plate surface.
A numerical study was
performed to further evaluate
the effect of damage on
the magnetic field intensity.
The numerical simulations
were conducted using steel
plates and Neodynium
magnets with the same size
and properties as the experimental
study. Tables 3
and 4, respectively, show
the magnetic properties
of the plates and magnets
June 2021
used this study. ANSYS Maxwell software was used for the
simulations. Fig. 8 presents different scenarios considered in
the numerical study. The finite element model and mesh are
shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 10 visualizes typical results, showing the
effect of different crack sizes on the magnetic field at a distance
of 200 mm from the steel plate. In addition, Fig. 11 presents the
magnitude of the flux density with respect to the distance from
the measuring point to the cracks.
A summary of the numerical simulation results is given in
Table 5. Comparing the results for plates with one crack, it is
seen that the magnetic field intensity increases as the size of
the cracks increases. This trend is only distinct for a distance of
200 mm. There is not a significant change in the magnetic flux
as more cracks are introduced to the plates. The magnetic field
Fig. 7. (a) Steel plate with one 14 mm crack. (b) Steel plate with two 14 mm cracks. (c) Steel plate with three 14 mm
cracks.
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
53

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

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