Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 55

Fig. 8. Locations of magnets and cracks in the numerical models: (a) 14 mm cracks, (b) 34 mm cracks, and (c) 54mm
cracks.
decreases as the distance of the smartphone increases from the
steel plate surface.
A comparison of the results obtained in the experimental
and numerical studies is presented in Fig. 12. It is seen that the
detected magnetic field intensities are within the same range in
both experimental and numerical studies for various studied
damage sates. The experimental study results seem to be more
consistent compared to the numerical results. Also, the variations
of the magnetic flux due to damage progression is better
captured by the smartphone magnetometer in the experimental
study. It is worth mentioning that the size of the cracks is not
exactly the same as those designed in the numerical study due
to fabrication challenges. The small difference in the reported
experimental and numerical values might be due to this issue.
Discussion and
Vision for Future
Applications
With emerging technologies
in recent years,
smartphone-enabled
sensing devices have
significantly attracted attentions
in research and
practice. In general, the
sensing technologies in
smartphones can be categorized
as the participatory
sensing and opportunistic
sensing, which enable
the applications of those
smartphones in different
scenarios [15]. The
Apps developed for sensing
in smartphones can be
featured as: directly measuring
physical quantities
based on integrated sensors;
and connecting and
deploying other devices.
Therefore, the smartphoneenabled
sensing devices
can be classified into either:
detectors or interfaces for
instruments [17]. Comparing
with other types of sensing technologies in the literature,
the reported smartphone-enabled sensing technique provides
the efficient approach to detect and analyze structural
conditions, which could be a powerful tool for the next-generation
devices to monitor and detect structural failures at the
early stages [24], [26], [27]. In addition, the reported smartphone
sensors are user-friendly and easy for untrained people
to operate. However, it is worthwhile to point out that conditions
of complex structures cannot be accurately detected by
the reported smartphone sensors, which requires new Apps
to completely deploy the functionalities of the smartphones.
The reported smartphone-enabled sensing technique is
envisioned for smart SHM in the Internet of Things (IoT)
platforms [22], [29]. Taking advantage of IoT to physically
Fig. 9. (a) Steel plate with magnets, and (b) mesh structure of the plate and magnets.
June 2021
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
55

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

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