Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 68

Fig. 5. HOG feature description in container handle detection. (a) Original image; (b) Handles description by HOG; (c) SVM
classifier training.
Fig. 6. You only look once (YOLO) detection process. (a) S x S grid on input; (b) Class probability map; (c) Final detections.
With the development
of computing resources,
the use of convolutional
neural networks (CNNs) to
detect image features has
become possible. CNNs
achieve superior performance
compared with
traditional classifier algorithms
[10], and they do
not require description features
from the image as
observed in the HOG process.
CNNs can directly
extract features from the
original image. We consider
you only look once
(YOLO) [11] as an example;
its detection process is
illustrated in Fig. 6. YOLO
divides the original picture
into S × S grids and then
uses convolution calculations
to extract features and
detect the targets. This operation
only performs one
convolution calculation
on the entire image; therefore,
its detection speed is
significantly faster than
that of a detection-purpose
classifier. Owing to these
advantages, the CNNbased
image recognition
algorithms have been extensively
used in recent
years.
Fig. 7. Basic principle of VBM.
container handle. On one side of the plane H are the positive
samples (container handle), and on the other side are the negative
samples (these samples do not contain a container handle).
The trained classifier can be used to detect the target feature
area in other scenes.
68
Target Measurement
Algorithm
The target detection algorithm
only obtains the
coordinates of the target
from the image. To obtain
the actual position data, a
conversion process is necessary.
The basic method is
to convert coordinate data
into real geometric data.
Fig. 7 shows the principle
of a simple measurement
system that has been called triangulation.
In this system, the light reflected by the target on point G
will enter the camera through the focal F; thereafter, it will
make a virtual image at G1 on the charge coupled device
(CCD) of the camera. CCD will record the light information
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
June 2021

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

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