Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 69

Fig. 8. Detection of container keyhole and its intersection over union (IOU) value.
the resolution of the image
detection system. The
sub-pixel subdivision algorithm
was first proposed
by Hueckel [13]. It used to
interpolate the pixels in the
original image to obtain a
more detailed image. Fig.
9 illustrates the sub-pixel
subdivision process of container
keyhole images. The
original image size is 35×30
pixels. The positioning accuracy
can only reach 1
on the image. The actual distance D1 (the straight distance
between the target and the center line of camera) has a corresponding
relationship with x (the distance between the target
in the image and the center of the image). When the distance
and focal length is known, D1 can be calculated by (1), and the
errors of this method can be calculated by (2), where Pixel Size

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