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equipment, all image processing operations are completed in
a single computing unit, and each image processing unit operates
independently. The camera sensor network (CSN) [16]
technology provides a different idea. In CSN, each camera
uses its own data and the data coming from other cameras to
solve computer vision tasks. As an example, Kamal et al. [17]
designed a CSN-based multi-target tracking and data association
algorithm in vision networks. This algorithm integrates
multiple sets of image processing units through a communication
network. Each image processing unit uses the data that it
acquires, as well as data from cameras with overlapping fields
of view, to solve visual processing tasks. Distributed computer
vision algorithms are necessary to improve the overall
efficiency and scalability of the system. The use of redundant
information from the CSN also improves the system's robustness
to outliers and node failures.
Research on Miniaturization and Modularization
of System Device
The complexity of image processing algorithms and the increasing
amount of data are placing higher demands on
computing devices. Traditional single-core embedded devices
are unable to meet the application requirements. The advancement
of microelectronics and communication technology has
enabled the development of embedded devices for the embedded
reconfigurable computing system (ERCS), which embeds
reconfigurable components and microprocessors into a system
to accelerate a set of key computationally intensive tasks.
ERCS is a computer system comprising programmable and
reconfigurable hardware and software running on a generalpurpose
microprocessor [18]. It combines the flexibility of the
microprocessor and ASIC. Owing to the strong scalability of
the reconfigurable computing system, using this concept to
construct image equipment can effectively reduce the cost of
VBM system hardware and reduce its maintenance expenses.
Conclusion
In this study, we introduced VBM, its system structure, and application
in ACT, such as CPS and SCS. We also summarized
some of the difficulties experienced in the application of VBM.
Owing to its excellent capabilities in image recognition and
non-contact measurement, VBM has been extensively used in
information acquisition in ACT, to provide the necessary information
to terminal operation systems. With the growing
popularity of ACT in the global terminal industry, VBM is expected
to become more ubiquitous in terminal automation
equipment.
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Chao Mi (chaomi@shmtu.edu.cn) is a Senior Engineer with
the Container Supply Chain Technology Engineering Research
Center, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Maritime University,
Shanghai, China, where he received the Ph.D. degree in management
science and engineering in 2019. His research areas
are logistic engineering, automation, machine vision and the
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