Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 9

Table 1 - Advantages of LIT in comparison to current methods to investigate
nanoparticles in complex environments.
Objectives
Quantification of
nanoparticles in a solid
matrix
Detection and
characterization
of nanoparticles in
suspension
Current method of choice
Inductively Coupled Plasma
(ICP)
Limitations
* Destructive
* Differentiation between
metal nanoparticles and
Mex+
-Ion impossible
Dynamic Light Scattering
(DLS)
Detection and
characterization of
nanoparticles in biological
environments
Transmission Electron
Microscopy (TEM)
& Scanning Electron
Microscopy (SEM)
Fluorescent Microscopy (FM)
Dark-field Microscopy
(DM)
Quantification of carbonbased
nanoparticles in a
matrix
No methods currently
available
* Limited to samples in
liquid
* Non-purified and
heterogeneous samples are
problematic
* Time intensive
* Expensive
* Samples must be fixed,
dried and/or sectioned
* Fluorescent labelling
necessary (nanoparticles
surface modification)
* Expensive
* Expert knowledge for data
acquisition and analysis
required
No methods currently
available
Advantages of Lock-in
Thermal Imaging
* In-situ technique, nondestructive
*
Specific for nanoparticles
* 2D spatial information
* 2D spatial information
* Liquid/solid can be
investigated
* In-situ technique, no
sample drying required
* Analyzing of much larger
area
* Label-free technique
* Possibility to analyze
nanoparticles aggregation
* Affordable
* Easy to do
* Carbon-containing
nanoparticles can be
detected and ultimately
quantified
available, LIT is a promising technique that is particularly
suited for stimuli-responsive NPs that generate heat upon a
triggerable stimulation like light or an AMF. In this work, we
presented the core features of lock-in thermal imaging and described
in detail the setups, algorithms and key parameters.
We also proposed a further potential improvement in the case
of highly absorbing surrounding medium. Finally, we compared
lock-in thermal imaging with standard methods and
demonstrated that it possesses the required sensitivity and
versatility to become essential in the field.
References
[1] S. Moeinzadeh, and E. Jabbari, " Nanoparticles and their
applications, " Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, B. Bhushan, Ed.,
pp. 335-361. Berlin, Germany: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2017.
[2] J. Zhang, L. Chen, W. H. Tse, and R. Bi, " Inorganic nanoparticles:
engineering for biomedical applications, " IEEE Nanotechnology
Mag., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 21-28, 2014.
[3] E. K. Richman, and J. E. Hutchison, " The nanomaterial
characterization bottleneck, " Acs. Nano., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 24412446,
Sep. 2009.
[4] G. Busse, D. Wu, and W. Karpen, " Thermal wave imaging with
phase sensitive modulated thermography, " J. App. Physics, vol. 71,
no. 8, pp. 3962-3965, 1992.
June 2021
[5] M. Vollmer, and K.-P. Möllman, Infrared Thermal Imaging:
Fundamentals, Research and Applications. Weinheim, Germany:
Wiley-VCH, 2010.
[6] K. M. Donnell, " Active microwave thermography - a new twist
on microwave NDT [In Microwave Women Research], " IEEE
Instrum. Meas. Mag., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 24-26, 2016.
[7] A. Mirala, A. Foudazi, M. T. A. Qaseer, and K. M. Donnell, " Active
microwave thermography to detect and locate water ingress, "
IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 69, no. 12, 2020.
[8] B. Gao, L. Bai, W. L. Woo, G. Y. Tian, and Y. Cheng, " Automatic
defect identification of eddy current pulsed thermography using
single channel blind source separation, " IEEE Trans. Instrum.
Meas., vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 913-922, 2014.
[9] L. Steinmetz, J. Bourquin, H. Barosova, L. Haeni, J. Caldwell,
A. Milosevic, C. Geers, M. Bonmarin, P. Taladriz-Blanco, B.
Rothen-Rutishauser, and A. Petri-Fink, " Rapid and sensitive
quantification of cell-associated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, "
Nanoscale, vol. 12, no. 33, pp. 17362-17372, 2020.
[10] L. Steinmetz, C. Kirsch, C. Geers, A. Petri-Fink, and M. Bonmarin,
" Investigating a lock-in thermal imaging setup for the detection
and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, " Nanomaterials
(Basel, Switzerland), vol. 10, no. 9, Aug. 2020.
[11] L. Steinmetz, P. Taladriz-Blanco, C. Geers, M. Spuch-Calvar, M.
Bonmarin, S. Balog, B. Rothen-Rutishauser, and A. Petri-Fink,
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
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