Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 94

of the entire platform than the aerial photogrammetry solution.
This is due to the greater mass of the LIDAR compared to
the RGB camera. Since the larger mass requires a greater thrust
force from the engines, in the case of aerial laser scanning, a
hexarotor has been chosen.
According to the chosen motors and elements that will
compose the UAV platforms, for both solutions, an estimate of
the energy consumption can be performed and the battery capacity
sized. In particular, since a hexarotor has been chosen
for aerial laser scanning over quadrotor for aerial photogrammetry,
different sizing of the batteries has been chosen. In fact,
for aerial laser scanning, two 4S LiPo batteries of 4600 mAh capacity
are used compared to the single battery of the quadrotor
for the desired flight time of 20 minutes.
It is possible to observe that the aerial photogrammetry
UAV platform requires a smaller UAV, a quadrotor with one
battery, with respect to the aerial laser scanning one which has
a hexarotor with two batteries. On the other hand, according to
the uncertainty models, the aerial photogrammetry platform
will exhibit a measurement uncertainty value of 16 cm, while
the aerial laser scanning solution has a measurement uncertainty
value of 5 cm.
The application of the proposed design procedure to
this specific case study highlights how the uncertainty requirements
strictly affect the design of the whole UAV
platform. In particular, to reduce about three times the measurement
uncertainty, the aerial laser scanning solution
consisting of a hexarotor with two batteries has to be used versus
the quadrotor with one battery adopted in the case of aerial
photogrammetry.
Conclusions
The number of applications using UAV as measuring instruments
is constantly increasing, but unfortunately, the provided
information about the measurement uncertainty associated with
these measurements is quite poor. Without an adequate measurement
uncertainty assessment, it is impossible to attribute
a correct interpretation and use to the collected measurement
data. Each specific application has its own target uncertainty
which must be taken into account. For these reasons, it is driving
the designers to the essential measurement uncertainty assessment,
in all the design steps and along the whole measurement
chain of the generic UAV-based instrument.
A procedure for the design of a UAV-based measurement
instrument according to the measurement uncertainty assessment
for the specific application was proposed. Moreover, the
functional blocks that describe the measurement chain of a generic
UAV-based measurement instrument were discussed
together with the procedure needs to assess the measurement
uncertainty. Furthermore, the steps required for the design
of a UAV-based measurement instrument, including the uncertainty
assessment were delineated. The proposed design
procedure was applied to the case study of 3D reconstruction
of archaeological sites. Two UAV-based measurement
instrument solutions were provided, and their measurement
uncertainties were estimated. The steps of the proposed
94
procedure could be used as guidelines for the design of measurement
instruments based on UAVs, where the proposed
platforms must exhibit measurement uncertainties as required
by the specific application.
References
[1] L. De Vito and F. Picariello, " The drone as a flexible mobile
measurement platform, " IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement
Society Video Tutorial, 01 May 2017. [Online] Available: https://
resourcecenter.ims.ieee.org/education/tutorials/IMSTUT0050.
html.
[2] P. Daponte, L. De Vito, G. Mazzilli, F. Picariello, S. Rapuano,
and M. Riccio, " Metrology for drone and drone for metrology:
measurement systems on small civilian drones, " in Proc. of 2015
IEEE Metrology for Aerospace (MetroAeroSpace), pp. 306-311, 2015.
[3] A. Ollero, " UAV applications, " in " Handbook of Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles, " K. Valavanis and J. G. Vachtsevanos, Eds., pp. 26372860,
vol. 5. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2015.
[4] M. Rossi and D. Brunelli, " Autonomous gas detection and
mapping with unmanned aerial vehicles, " IEEE Trans. Instrum.
Meas., vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 765-775, Apr. 2016.
[5] R. O. R. Jenssen, M. Eckerstorfer, and S. Jacobsen, " Dronemounted
ultrawideband radar for retrieval of snowpack
properties, " IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 69, No. 1, pp. 221-230,
Jan. 2020.
[6] J. G. Webster and H. Eren, Measurement Instrumentation and
Sensors Handbook, 2nd
and Francis Group, 2014.
[7] P. Daponte, L. De Vito, G. Mazzilli, F.P icariello, and S. Rapuano,
" A height measurement uncertainty model for archaeological
surveys by aerial photogrammetry, " J. Meas., vol. 98, pp. 192-198,
Feb. 2017.
[8] H. Li, H. Zhang, B. Zhang, Z. Chen, M.Y ang, Y. Zhang, " A
method suitable for vicarious calibration of a UAV hyperspectral
remote sensor, " IEEE J. Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations
and Remote Sensing, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 3209-3223, Jun. 2015.
[9] " Evaluation of measurement data-Guide to the Expression
of Uncertainty in Measurement, " BIPM, IEC, IFCC, ILAC,
ISO, IUPAC, IUPAP, OIML, (JCGM) 100, Geneva, Switzerland,
International Organization for Standardization, 2008.
[10] " 4 Reasons drones will revolutionize accident scene response, "
Pix4D, Medium.com. [Online] Available: https://medium.
com/the-science-of-drone-mapping/4-reasons-drones-willrevolutionize-accident-scene-response-a1db234eeccf.
[11]
F. Bandini, J. Jakobsen, D. Olesen, J. A. Reyna-Gutierrez, and P.
Bauer-Gottwein, " Measuring water level in rivers and lakes from
lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles, " J. Hydrology, vol. 548, pp.
237-250, Feb. 2017.
[12] L. De Vito, and F. Picariello, " Design and characterization of
measurement systems based on drone, " IEEE Instrumentation
and Measurement Society Video Tutorial, 14 May 2018. [Online]
Available: https://resourcecenter.ims.ieee.org/education/
tutorials/IMSTUT0160.html.
Eulalia Balestrieri (balestrieri@unisannio.it) joined the Department
of Engineering, University of Sannio, Benevento,
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
June 2021
Ed. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press Taylor
https://resourcecenter.ims.ieee.org/education/tutorials/IMSTUT0050.html https://resourcecenter.ims.ieee.org/education/tutorials/IMSTUT0050.html https://resourcecenter.ims.ieee.org/education/tutorials/IMSTUT0050.html http://Medium.com https://medium.com/the-science-of-drone-mapping/4-reasons-drones-will-revolutionize-accident-scene-response-a1db234eeccf https://medium.com/the-science-of-drone-mapping/4-reasons-drones-will-revolutionize-accident-scene-response-a1db234eeccf https://medium.com/the-science-of-drone-mapping/4-reasons-drones-will-revolutionize-accident-scene-response-a1db234eeccf https://resourcecenter.ims.ieee.org/education/tutorials/IMSTUT0160.html https://resourcecenter.ims.ieee.org/education/tutorials/IMSTUT0160.html

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