Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 96

For Safer High-Speed Trains:
A Comprehensive Research
Method of Electromagnetic
Interference on Speed Sensors
Yutao Tang, Feng Zhu, and Yingying Cheng
W
hen the pantograph of a high-speed train is
separated from the power supply line, a pantograph-catenary
arc (PCA) occurs. This generates
electromagnetic interference (EMI) and additional undesired
effects on the electrical equipment (such as speed sensors) on
the train. It creates a safety hazard for high-speed train operation.
This article presents a new method for dealing with EMI
caused by the PCA on speed sensors of high-speed trains. The
proposed method consists of carrying out an in-depth analysis
of the different coupling modes of EMI to identify the corresponding
interference suppression measures. Thus, the safety
of train operation can be ensured. By changing some relevant
parameters, the proposed method can also be applied to other
types of trains and electrical equipment.
Current Situation of EMI of the HighSpeed
Train
Due to the continuing and rapid advances of both electronic
technology and computer technology, the number of electrical
and electronic equipment used in the high-speed train
has increased significantly. Besides, the electromagnetic environment
of train operation is also complex, which makes the
electromagnetic interference (EMI) problem of the train more
prominent. Therefore, the interference immunity of the highspeed
train must be improved to ensure its safe operation. The
most important one is to suppress EMI produced by the pantograph-catenary
arc (PCA).
The high-speed train gets electricity from the power supply
line through the pantograph on its roof. But the pantograph
needs to be separated from the line after the train stops, which
generates the PCA. The EMI caused by the PCA not only affects
the environment [1]-[3] but also impacts the equipment of highspeed
trains, such as speed sensors. As such, it is important to
develop methods that can measure and detect interference and
suppress it. Such methods will be: primarily for electrical and/
or electronic devices of high-speed trains, measurement-based
and will receive the characteristics of EMI caused by the PCA
from the EMI receiver or oscilloscope, sometimes able to detect
interference at different frequency ranges by using variable antennas,
and able to analyze and manage the faulty equipment.
In this article, we propose a comprehensive research method
of EMI. Because it uses actual train parameters and practical
field measurement data, it is not only complete; it is also typically
more reliable and accurate than the results obtained by
simulation. Also, since the models of the train and PCA in this
method are universal, they are quite generic and easy to change
according to different research equipment, which help to make
this method more ubiquitous and applicable.
Current Research Situation and
Deficiencies
In the context of Instrumentation and Measurement, the research
on various aspects of high-speed trains has been
widely proposed. In order to provide more accurate measurement
data for the study of the aerodynamic performance of
high-speed trains, the train-sensor aerodynamic model was established
and the pressure values were measured [4]. A novel
approach was proposed to detect the faulty states of isoelectric
lines of high-speed railway based on generative adversarial
networks for judging faulty isoelectric line correctly [5]. To improve
the condition monitoring of high-speed train catenary, a
novel scheme to detect catenary local irregularities using pantograph
head acceleration measurements was presented [6].
An interesting observation about this research is that, although
they seem to be in very different and unrelated fields, they all
use the same principle: Analysis-Modeling-Measurement-
Analysis again. The same principle is used to study the EMI on
trains: Some scholars have used the train model to study the
overvoltage on the train bodies (TBs) when the pantograph is
separated from the power supply line [7], [8]; the electromagnetic
radiation (EMR) from the PCA of the subway has been
measured and analyzed in [9], [10]; and in some studies [11],
[12], researchers analyzed the working principle of speed sensors
and studied the impact of the PCA on it.
This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China under Grant No. 2018YFC0809500.
96
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
1094-6969/21/$25.00©2021IEEE
June 2021

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

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