Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4 - 97

However, there are still some deficiencies in the study of
EMI on high-speed trains:
◗ The coupling process of EMI on train equipment is not
involved in most studies, which leads to an incomplete
analysis of the interference.
◗ There is no general train model that includes sensitive
equipment and the PCA in the current research, which
makes the research method unsuitable for different
disturbed equipment and different train power supply
levels. For instance, the characteristics of EMI from the
PCA of the subways and high-speed trains are different
because the voltage levels of the subways (dc 1500 V) and
the high-speed trains (ac 25 KV) are different.
◗ Many scholars only consider a single influence factor and
do not combine the actual conditions of the train to study
the influence of multiple disturbances.
◗ Most of the measurement data come from laboratory
models rather than more reliable field tests. As a modern
mode of transportation, high-speed trains are developing
rapidly all over the world, especially in China. Therefore,
we can measure and detect the high-speed train in practice
for studying the EMI on the equipment of the train.
Overview of the Research Method
The comprehensive research method of EMI produced by
the PCA on the speed sensor of the high-speed train is the
extension and deepening of previous work. A typical example
of when that speed sensor is disturbed is when the doors
of a high-speed train at Changchun station in China cannot
be opened after separating the pantograph [13], [14]. Therefore,
it is necessary and important to research the influence of
the PCA on the high-speed train speed sensors. Based on the
composite model of the high-speed train, this method makes
the analysis of the electromagnetic coupling approach of EMI
more complete.
The specific research processes can be listed as follows:
◗ Analyzing the structure of the high-speed train speed
sensor and finding out the factors that might affect its
normal operation.
◗ Studying the structure of the high-speed train in detail
and establishing its composite model. The model should
include the power supply line, TBs, speed sensors,
grounding systems, and the PCA.
◗ Simulation and analysis of the model.
◗ Practical measurements on site. The measurement items
are the TB voltage, the signal port voltage of the sensor,
and the magnetic field.
◗ Proposing the methods to reduce the EMI with different
electromagnetic coupling pathways on the speed sensor
of the high-speed train.
In the following, an example of a typical high-speed train
in China is used to illustrate this method. Different trains and
sensitive equipment can be studied based on the following
methods
Analysis of the Structure and
Interference Modes of Speed Sensor
Structure of the High-speed Train with Speed
Sensors
The high-speed train in China consists of 16 marshalling TBs.
As can be seen in Fig. 1a, their serial numbers are from 01 TB
to 16 TB. In addition, there are four pantographs on the roof of
02 TB, 07 TB, 10 TB, and 15 TB, respectively [15]. As shown in
Fig. 1. The structure of the high-speed train. (a) Structure of the TBs; (b) Structure of the Critical equipment.
June 2021
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
97

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-4

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