Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-5 - 7

Fig. 3. Calculations from simulations performed using an FEM approach. (a) Effective refractive index (ηeff
) of LP01
-like fundamental mode, (b) effective material
loss (EML), confinement loss, transmission loss (left) and fraction of power (FOP) in polymer web (right) of an evacuated HC-ARPCF with a 3 mm core diameter, and
0.09 mm polymer web; (c) Mode field intensity plots of two computed modes at 1 THz (on antiresonance) and 1.6 THz (on-resonance).
of frequency. The numerical simulation reveals that more than
99% of power concentrates within the hollow region at around
1 THz. The modal power distributions employing different refractive
indices in the core explain the spectral behavior of the
filled analytes. Fig. 4b represents the relative sensitivity of the
HC-ARF by varying the analyte refractive index. In our analysis
shown in Fig 4c, the theoretical maximum refractive index
sensitivity for the proposed sensor is 3335 GHz/RIU (refractive-index-unit)
[15].
The group velocity dispersion (GVD) and the power flow
through the core are shown in Fig. 4d. We can see that over
99.99% of the light can be guided through the core region.
The cladding resonance disrupts the transmission and therefore
has very little impact on the GVD. The low dispersion
slope implies that, even though the material nonlinearity for
Zeonex is relatively weak, the nonlinear contribution to the
phase-matching is significant. It displays almost flat and zero
GVD for the LP01
-like fundamental mode. With the advantage
of having a much lower transmission loss, an HC-ARF fiber
is linear with a zero dispersion for the entire frequency range
August 2021
which is verified through FEM simulation shown in Fig. 4d
(green curve). The shallow and flat GVD slope changes rapidly
at resonance frequencies where the refractive index of the
core mode and cladding mode matches and causes strong coupling
between them.
Although a HC-ARF exhibits zero dispersion, it has a
close to zero nonlinear coefficient because of its low FOPS
(<< 0.01%) in the material; however, there are ways to create
nonlinearity in the terahertz regime. HC-ARFs provide
anomalous dispersion which is suitable for chirped pulse
compression by self-phase modulation (SPM). This facilitates
linear or near-linear dispersive compression, analogous
to what can be acquired through bulk diffraction gratings, in
an all-fiber system at pulse energies where standard fibers
would be strongly nonlinear. The GVD plays the central role
in controlling the nonlinear dynamics, the dispersion properties
of which can be extensively engineered by varying the
gas species or the gas pressure-this has become the dominant
approach for exploring the nonlinear effect in gas-filled
HC-ARF.
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
7

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-5

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