Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-6 - 53

Fig. 7. Our circuit with the HB100 sensor.
Ultra-wide band (UWB) is another radio technology which
can be implemented in FMCW mode that is used in shortrange,
high-bandwidth communication. Compared to other
CW and FMCW radars, UWB radar is able to emit very short
pulses in a broad frequency bandwidth to mitigate the multipath
interference problem [24]. To evaluate the possibility
of using microwave doppler radars for HAR, we investigated
two such radars: the HB100 microwave motion sensor and the
FM24-NP100 microwave range sensor, as explained next.
The HB100 microwave motion sensor is a X-band (10.525
GHz) CW doppler transceiver module. This sensor has a low
amplitude output voltage, and its frequency represents the
speed at which an object is moving towards or away from the
sensor. We built such a circuit as a PCB board, shown in Fig.
7, based on the circuit schematic in [25]. We added a stage for
output amplification and a filter to eliminate noise and higher
harmonics. The time domain outputs for standing, walking
and running are shown in Fig. 8a, Fig. 8b and Fig. 8c, respectively.
We can see that the output frequency is affected by the
pace. Also, at a high speed of movement, the output frequency
increases. The amplitude of the output voltage depends on the
power of the reflected wave.
FM24-NP100, depicted in Fig. 9, is a microwave range sensor
in the K-band (24�24.250 GHz) using an FMCW doppler
transceiver. This sensor is able to detect multiple targets; therefore,
in addition to the two-byte distance information, it also
provides a 126-distance spectrum with magnitude 1 to 44.
The time domain outputs for standing, walking and running
are shown in Fig. 10a and Fig. 10b. We can see that movement
at different distances can be detected in the distance spectrum
outputs which are displayed on the vertical axes. Also,
a higher pace of movement leads to a higher rate of change
across the distance spectrums in the time domain.
Such systems have been proposed for well-being assessments
at homes. For example, an UWB radar system is
proposed in [16] for comprehensive human motion recognition.
Human actions including standing, bowing, sitting,
standing, squatting, jumping, falling vertically, walking,
September 2021
Fig. 8. HB100 output for: (a) Standing; (b) Walking; (c) Running.
jogging, jumping forward and backward and crawling forward
can be detected, in situ for the first six actions and non-in
situ for the latter six. According to the distance spectrum information
in the FMCW radar, it is obvious that in situ motions
cover only a small distance range while the situation is the opposite
for non-in situ motions. This is the base for separating
in situ and non-in situ motions. Another way to assess human
health is analyzing their walking ability and pattern, which
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
53

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