Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-6 - 63

Project
Table 3 - Examples of projects dealing with AAL approaches involving AI algorithms
Brief description
Type
Health@Home: Smart communities
for citizens' wellness
eWare - Early Warning (by lifestyle
monitoring) Accompanies
Robotics Excellence
Guardian
Italian Smart
Cities project
AAL
Integrated health, social services,
and interoperable devices for
health at home.
Integration of lifestyle monitoring
with social robotics to improve the
lifestyle of people with dementia
and their caregivers.
AAL
Care robot supporting seniors
and caregivers thanks to remote
monitoring capabilities.
Resilien-T
AAL
ICT solutions to support selfmonitoring
and self-management
for people with Mild Cognitive
Impairment (MCI).
on a reliable measurement of human well-being, from which
three indices were derived, i.e., physical, mental, and general
health indices. ML algorithms (mainly Regression Tree and
Random Forest) were used to extract patterns from behavioral
(domotic) data, considering that they are influenced by the users'
well-being, providing the users' response as output. The
mean absolute error (MAE) reported was equal to 32%, 13%
and 17% for physical, mental, and general health indices, respectively.
The intra- and the inter-subject variabilities surely
play a heavy role in the definition of uncertainty. Both the environment
and the user's parameters have been monitored (by
means of automation sensors-light status, thermostat, and
PIR sensors-and biomedical/wearable/unobtrusive sensors-the
Bioharness 3.0 multiparametric chest-belt for HR
and breathing rate, respectively) in order to develop domestic
technological solutions aimed at improving the citizens'
QoL [24]. The Bioharness system has been characterized by the
authors, identifying a measurement uncertainty of ±2.1 and
±2.8 bpm for HR in static and dynamic tests and of ±2.1 bpm
in the measurement of breathing values with respect to standard
equipment [25].
In the eWare project [26], AI algorithms were introduced
in home-based research in the network of the living environment
to measure the ADLs of ageing people with dementia to
improve their QoL. Social robotics was added to support communication,
hence endorsing a person-centered care model
and acting as an interface between the user and her/his caregiver.
This is intended to reduce the distress of both users and
caregivers, thus enhancing QoL. In particular, PIR and open/
close sensors (Sensara lifestyle monitoring, whose PIR sensor
results to monitor the sleep efficiency with a statistic conference
of 4.7%-coverage parameter k = 2-with respect to a reference
ballistocardiographic sensor [27]) and social robotic technology
(Tinybots) were combined to realise the eWare ecosystem.
The system included a Cloud for data storage, a mobile application
for caregivers, and an API as interface between Sensara/
Tinybots technologies and the eWare ecosystem.
September 2021
-
Web link
http://www.aal-europe.eu/
projects/eware/
http://www.aal-europe.eu/
projects/guardian/
http://www.aal-europe.eu/
projects/resilien-t/
In the Guardian project, sensors are on-board the robot
that is being developed to support seniors and caregivers;
in particular, the robot is intended to decrease the workload
of professional nurses. These social robots in Guardian are
equipped with sensors that are able to map the living environment
and can establish audio/visual connection between
dwellers and a remote caregiver (providing a helping hand
and reducing burden of both professional nurses and informal
caregivers), that seems extremely useful, for example, in
case of a fall. The Guardian social robot endorses the sustainability
of care, provides remote monitoring data and also is
persuasive and motivating since the user adopts personalized
interaction approaches, hence promoting autonomy and increasing
QoL. Data are stored in a Cloud and both a web and
mobile application are available for caregivers to communicate
with/through the robot.
Finally, the Resilien-T project [28] aims to develop an ICT
solution to support self-monitoring and self-management
of people with mild cognitive impairment. Resilien-T (with
smart wearable gadgets and lifestyle monitoring systems)
wants to be a coach that acts in many dimensions, e.g., nutrition,
physical and social activities, and cognitive training.
The iHealth wave watch was identified from a list of 32 commercial
smartwatches to monitor the user's physical activity
and sleep patterns, useful for the physical activity coaching
dimension.
Certification Schemes for Ageing in
Place
The creation of AFH suitable for residents to age in place can
have multiple advantages: improving health and well-being
of the inhabitants, which are strongly influenced by the housing;
fighting against social isolation and promoting social
networks and activities within the community; enhancing the
cost-effectiveness of care delivery (in the UK the Health Foundation
assessed savings for public services equal to double the
investment made in housing support to vulnerable people),
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
63
http://www.aal-europe.eu/projects/eware/ http://www.aal-europe.eu/projects/eware/ http://www.aal-europe.eu/projects/guardian/ http://www.aal-europe.eu/projects/guardian/ http://www.aal-europe.eu/projects/resilien-t/ http://www.aal-europe.eu/projects/resilien-t/

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