Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 3

guesteditorial
Pasquale Arpaia and Gianluigi Arduini
P
article accelerators and detectors have been initially
developed for the study of particle physics, analogously
as telescopes for astronomy and microscopes
for biology. They have become the most complex and expensive
scientific instruments ever built by mankind and
exploit every aspect of today's cutting-edge technology. In
many cases, accelerators have been the driving forces behind
these new technologies. Today tens of thousands of accelerators
exist worldwide and are used in different domains
such as material science, biology, sterilization and polymerization,
radiation surgery and cancer therapy, production of
radioisotopes as tracers in medicine, and lithography for the
fabrication of electronics components.
As an example, the technologies required to build and
operate the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator and
detectors have demanded challenging Instrumentation and
Measurement (I&M) techniques as well as new computing
and controls approaches. The developments necessary for
the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), for the Future Circular
Collider (FCC) and for the experiments conceived for the exploration
of rare phenomena and physics Beyond the Standard
Model are bringing the engineering and metrological specifications
to unprecedented levels. High precision controls and
accurate measurements of extremely high or low quantities,
sometimes in prohibitive conditions, will be necessary for
the proof of concept of components that do not exist in literature/market
with the aim of creating highly reproducible and
reliable devices. In addition, the operation of these complex
facilities starts to benefit and will benefit even more from the
development of machine learning and artificial intelligence
techniques.
The main aim of this special issue on Measurement in
Nuclear Systems for the I&M Magazine is to offer a general
overview of the recent research advances in the field of instrumentation
and measurement for particle accelerators
and detectors for high energy physics and other possible
applications.
The first example of these flagship I&M technologies in
the special issue arises from the field of large-area detectors
needed by particle physics, space research and several other
fields of basic and applied science. They are made by a new
generation of thin sensors able to provide, at the same time,
December 2021
excellent position and time resolution. Monolithic Active Pixel
Sensors (MAPS), which contain the sensor in the same CMOS
substrate utilized for electronics, might provide a viable solution.
MAPS are particularly appealing since they offer all the
advantages of industrial standard processing, avoiding the
production complexity and high cost of the bump-bonded
hybrid pixel sensors that are commonly used in high-energy
physics. The first article of the special issue focuses on a research
project of the University of Geneva headed by Giuseppe
Iacobucci to develop MAPS able to provide accurate space resolution
and time resolution better than 10 ps.
The second article from the research group of Enrico Silva
form the University of Rome 3 concerns the characterization
of superconductors (SCs) with ever increasing performance.
Namely, the surface impedance measurement of SCs in the
mixed state provides useful information, both in view of RF
technological applications, such as the beam screens for particle
accelerators, or in the design of haloscopes for dark matter
detection experiments, and intrinsically for scientific aspects
related to the SCs physics. Given the emerging technological
interest, a metrological study of the performance of these
techniques is essential to obtain reliable measurements. Multifrequency
dielectric resonators sided with suitable data
analysis procedures are powerful tools for a correct evaluation
of the vortex motion parameters in SCs. The need to perform
accurate and precise measurements at cryogenic temperatures
and high frequency, high dc fields and large RF powers, is a
challenging metrological journey that has only begun.
Manfred Wendt from CERN provides a brief tutorial introduction
to beam position monitors for charged particle
accelerators. The instruments are important and vital components
in any particle accelerator to monitor the beam position
and additional other machine parameters. The resolution, accuracy,
precision and reproducibility requirements of these
devices are becoming increasingly challenging. As an example,
micrometric resolutions for orbit measurements are nowadays
required in extremely large machines like the LHC! The article
covers the basic principles and elementary aspects of this
technique with an extensive collection of references for further
information on state-of-the-art techniques and technologies.
Optical fiber sensors based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)
technology are used to monitor the mechanical behavior of
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
3

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9

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