Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 39

Conclusion
This paper gives an overview of the instrumentation and measurements
done to monitor the strain profile of LTS magnets.
FBG based optical strain sensors were installed on short model
LTS magnets, and a very good agreement was found between
electrical and optical sensors. Indeed, the dependency found
between FBGs and RSGs measurements was 0.99 ± 0.04. RSGs
cannot be used during high voltage tests and need to be compensated
in electromagnetic fields and low temperatures,
which requires many wires. Unlike RSGs, FBG based optical
strain sensors are immune to electromagnetic fields and only
need to be compensated thermally, thanks to a performed calibration
study. An optical fiber feedthrough box was designed
and presented to extract the optical signals of a long model LTS
magnet from the cold mass (UHV and 1.9 K) to the cryostat,
and from the cryostat to the external environment. Therefore,
it was possible to monitor the strain profiles during the cooldown
and at powering tests of a long model LTS magnet at
1.9 K.
References
[1] P. Ferracin et al., " The HL-LHC low-β quadrupole magnet
MQXF: from short models to long prototypes, " IEEE Trans. Appl.
Supercond., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1-9, Aug. 2019.
[2] M. Guinchard et al., " Mechanical strain measurements based on
fiber bragg grating down to cryogenic temperature-precision
and trueness determination, " in Proc. 26th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber
Sensors (2018), paper WF85, Sep. 2018.
[3] T. Erdogan, " Fiber grating spectra, " J. Light. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8,
pp. 1277-1294, Aug. 1997.
[4] S. Magne, S. Rougeault, M. Vilela, and P. Ferdinand, " State-ofstrain
evaluation with fiber Bragg grating rosettes: application
to discrimination between strain and temperature effects in fiber
sensors, " Appl. Opt., vol. 36, no. 36, p. 9437, Dec. 1997.
[5] M. Guinchard et al., " Mechanical strain measurements based on
fiber bragg grating down to cryogenic temperature - r&d study
and applications, " in Proc. 9th Int Part. Accel. Conf, vol. IPAC2018,
2018.
[6] " C Series Strain Gauges: Temperature range up to -269 °C, "
HBM, Dec. 16, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.hbm.
com/en/3067/series-c-the-specialist-strain-gages-for-extremetemperatures/.
[7]
S. Izquierdo Bermudez et al., " Magnetic analysis of the MQXF
quadrupole for the high-luminosity LHC, " IEEE Trans. Appl.
Supercond., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1-5, Aug. 2019.
[8] A. Perin, F. Dhalla, P. Gayet, and L. Serio, " Upgrade of the
cryogenic infrastructure of SM18, CERN main test facility for
superconducting magnets and RF cavities, " IOP Conf. Ser. Mater.
Sci. Eng., vol. 278, no. 1, p. 012112, Dec. 2017.
[9] A. Vande Craen et al., " New vertical cryostat for the high field
superconducting magnet test station at CERN, " AIP Conf. Proc.,
vol. 1573, no. 1, pp. 229-236, Jan. 2014.
[10] H. Bajas et al., " Test result of the short models MQXFS3 and
MQXFS5 for the HL-LHC upgrade, " IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.,
vol. 28, not. 3. pp. 1-6, Apr. 2018.
Keziban Kandemir (keziban.kandemir@cern.ch) is a Research
Fellow at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, where she is developing
optical fiber sensors for mechanical measurements in
superconducting magnets. She received a master's degree in
optical physics from Jean Monnet University in Saint-Étienne,
France in 2020. Meanwhile, she worked as a technical student
at CERN on the development of an optical fiber sensor for radiation
monitoring across the CERN accelerator complex. She
completed her master's thesis at the Richemont R&I department,
working on the characterization of optical coatings.
Michael Guinchard (michael.guinchard@cern.ch) has been
in charge of the Mechanical Measurements Lab of ENMME
at CERN since 2005. He earned a degree in physical
measurements in 1996 from the Strasbourg University of Technology
in Strasbourg, France. He worked for General Motors
in the Noise and Vibration Laboratory of the European Technical
Centre for six years and followed in parallel engineering
courses in instrumentation and measurements with the National
Conservatory of Arts and Crafts in Paris, France.
Laura Bianchi studied mechanical engineering at the University
of Pisa, Italy and started working at CERN as technical
student in March 2016. She worked in the field of the experimental
stress analysis and on the development of optical
fiber sensors for mechanical strain measurements in CERN's
applications.
Sylvain Mugnier has worked on the development of centrifugal
pumps on test benches for nuclear power plants and the oil
and gas industry since 2006. He received a higher national diploma
in electrical engineering in 2002 and a master's degree
in mechanical engineering and industrialization from Polytech
Savoie, Annecy, France in 2016.
December 2021
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
39
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