Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 68

patients since 2011 with high levels of reliability, dose accuracy
and stability. The CNAO DDS is a CE marked medical
device, used at both the CNAO and MedAustron EBG therapy
facilities.
Treatments with protons and heavier ions are rapidly
evolving, and new accelerators, delivery techniques and
gantries will change the requirements for the dose delivery
systems. In this work, we reviewed the main components of
the CNAO DDS along with the extensions developed in collaboration
with GSI and the INFN of Turin, Italy to study new
delivery techniques and improve the treatment of moving
organs.
References
[1] C. Grau et al., " Particle therapy in Europe, " Molecular Oncol., vol.
14, no. 7, pp. 1492-1499, 2020.
[2] E. Pedroni et al., " The 200-MeV proton therapy project at the Paul
Scherrer Institute: conceptual design and practical realization, "
Med. Phys., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 37-53, 1995.
[3] D. Schardt et al., " Heavy-ion tumor therapy: physical and
radiobiological benefits, " Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 82, no. 1, pp.
383-425, 2010.
[4] S.E. Combs et al., " Particle therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy
Center (HIT) - integrated research-driven university-hospitalbased
radiation oncology service in Heidelberg, Germany, "
Radiother. Oncol., vol. 95, p. 41, 2010.
[5] S. Giordanengo and H. Palmans, " Dose detectors, sensors and
their applications, " Med. Phys., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. e1051-e1072,
2018.
[6] T. Haberer et al., " Magnetic scanning system for heavy ion
therapy, " Nucl Inst. Methods Phys Res, Sect A., vol. 330, pp.
296-305, 1993.
[7] T. Furukawa et al., " Performance of the NIRS fast scanning system
for heavy-ion radiotherapy, " Med. Phys., vol. 37, no. 11, pp.
5672-5682, 2010.
[8] M. Wedenberg et al., " Advanced treatment planning, " Med. Phys.,
vol. 45, no. 11, pp. e1011-e1023, 2018.
[9] C. Bert and M. Durante, " Motion in radiotherapy: particle
therapy, " Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 56, pp. R113-44, 2011.
[10] F. Albertini et al., " Online daily adaptive proton therapy, " Br. J.
Radiol., vol. 93, p. 1107, 2020.
[11] T. Furukawa et al., " Moving target irradiation with fast
rescanning and gating in particle therapy, " Med. Phys., vol. 37, pp.
4874-4879, 2010.
[12] P. Trnková et al., " Clinical implementations of 4D pencil beam
scanned particle therapy: report on the 4D treatment planning
workshop 2016 and 2017, " Physica Medica, vol. 54, pp. 121-130,
2018.
[13] H. Paganetti et al., " Roadmap: proton therapy physics and
biology, " Phys. Med. Biol., vol. 66, no. 5, 2021.
[14] S. Rossi, " The National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy
(CNAO): status and perspectives, " Physica Medica, vol. 31, no. 4,
pp. 333-351, 2015.
[15] S. Giordanengo et al., " The CNAO dose delivery system for
modulated scanning ion beam radiotherapy, " Med. Phys., vol. 42,
p. 263, 2014.
68
[16] A. Vignati et al., " Accuracy assessment of the CNAO dose
delivery system in the initial period of clinical activity and impact
of later improvements on delivered dose distributions, " Med.
Phys., vol. 47, p. 1468, 2020.
[17] E. Fiorina et al., " Detection of interfractional morphological
changes in proton therapy: a simulation and in vivo study with
the INSIDE in-beam PET, " Front. Phys., vol. 8, 578388, 2021.
[18] M. Lis et al., " A modular dose delivery system for treating
moving targets with scanned ion beams: performance and safety
characteristics, and preliminary tests, " Phys. Med., vol. 76, p. 307,
2020.
[19] M. Lis et al., " A modular system for treating moving anatomical
targets with scanned ion beams at multiple facilities: pre-clinical
testing for quality and safety of beam delivery, " Front. Oncol., vol.
11, 620388, 2021.
[20] S. Giordanengo et al., " RIDOS: a new system for online
computation of the delivered dose distributions in scanning ion
beam therapy, " Phys. Med., vol. 60, p. 139, 2019.
[21] A. La Rosa et al., " Design and test of a 64-channel charge
measurement ASIC developed in CMOS 0.35 μm technology, "
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys Res, Sect A, vol. 583, pp. 461-468, 2007.
[22] A. La Rosa et al., " Characterization of a front-end electronics for
the monitoring and control of hadrontherapy beams, " Nucl. Instr.
Meth. Phys Res, Sect A, vol. 586, pp. 270-275, 2008.
[23] J. D. Bradley et al., " Standard-dose versus high-dose conformal
radiotherapy with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin plus
paclitaxel with or without cetuximab for patients with stage IIIA
or IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (RTOG 0617): a randomised,
two-by-two factorial phase 3 study, " The Lancet Oncol., vol. 16, pp.
187-199, 2015.
[24] S. Mori, A.-C. Knopf, and K. Umegaki, " Motion management in
particle therapy, " Med. Phys., vol. 45, pp. e994-e1010, 2018.
[25] C. Graeff, " Motion mitigation in scanned ion beam therapy
through 4D-optimization, " Phys. Med., vol. 30, pp. 570-577, 2014.
[26] D. Richter et al., " Four-dimensional patient dose reconstruction
for scanned ion beam therapy of moving liver tumors, " Int. J.
Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys., vol. 89, pp. 175-181, 2014.
[27] G. Fattori et al., " Real-time optical tracking for motion
compensated irradiation with scanned particle beams at CNAO, "
Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys Res, Sect A, vol. 827, pp. 39-45, 2016.
[28] M. Seregni et al., " Tumor tracking based on correlation models
in scanned ion beam therapy: an experimental study, " Phys Med
Biol., vol. 58, pp. 4659-4678, 2013.
[29] M. Prall et al., " Ion beam tracking using ultrasound motion
detection, " Med. Phys., vol. 41, 041708, 2014.
[30] N. Saito et al., " Speed and accuracy of a beam tracking system for
treatment of moving targets with scanned ion beams, " Phys. Med.
Biol., vol. 54, pp. 4849-4862, 2009.
[31] C. Graeff, " Robustness of 4D-optimized scanned carbon ion beam
therapy against interfractional changes in lung cancer, " Radiother.
Oncol., vol. 122, pp. 387-392, 2017.
[32] M. Lis et al., " A facility for the research, developement, and
translation of advance technologies for ion-beam therapies, " J.
Instrum., vol. 16, T03004, 2021.
[33] D. A. Low et al., " A technique for the quantitative evaluation of
dose distributions, " Med. Phys., vol. 25, pp. 656-661, 1998.
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
December 2021

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - Cover1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - Cover2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 1
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 2
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 4
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 5
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 6
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 7
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 8
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 9
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 10
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 11
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 12
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 13
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 14
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 15
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 16
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 17
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 18
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 19
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 20
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 21
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 22
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 23
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 24
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 25
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 26
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 27
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 28
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 29
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 30
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 31
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 32
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 33
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 34
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 35
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 36
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 37
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 38
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 39
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 40
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 41
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 42
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 43
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 44
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 45
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 46
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 47
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 48
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 49
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 50
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 51
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 52
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 53
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 54
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 55
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 56
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 57
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 58
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 59
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 60
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 61
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 62
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 63
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 64
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 65
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 66
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 67
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 68
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 69
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 70
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 71
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 72
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 73
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 74
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 75
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 76
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 77
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 78
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 79
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - 80
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - Cover3
Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 24-9 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com