Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 25-5 - 34

Table 2 - Information of different frequency signals
Signal Frequency
Signal
B1I
B2I
B1C
B2a
1561.098 MHz
1207.140 MHz
1575.42 MHz
1176.45 MHz
component
I, Q, I+Q
I, Q, I+Q
Data
Pilot
Data
Pilot
Modulation
Mode
QPSK
QPSK
BOC
QMBOC
BPSK
BPSK
Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 show the distribution of the multipath
noise at difference carrier frequencies. It can be seen that the
B1C and B2a are more focused on zero.
Fig. 7 shows the root mean square (RMS) of MP over a
step size of 10 degrees. The RMS of BDS-3 signal is better than
BDS-2 signal, and the RMS of B2a has the smallest value. The
average values of RMS at each frequency are shown in Table 3.
Fig. 5. The distribution of the MP at B1I and B1C.
Fig. 3. Relationship between the MP and elevation for B1I and B1C.
Fig. 6. The distribution of the MP at B2I and B2a.
Fig. 4. Relationship between the MP and elevation for B2I and B2a.
The multipath noise decreases as the elevation angle at different
frequencies increases. The multipath measurements
noise of B1C and B2a are lower than those of B1I and B2I, the
few samples points are outside ±1 m (B1I: 2.91%, B2I: 0.55%,
B1C: 0.07%, B2a: 0.14%), and most samples points are within
±1 m (B1I: 97.09%, B2I: 99.45%, B1C: 99.93%, B2a: 99.86%). In
addition, BDS-3 is more stable than BDS-2, and the BDS-2 signal
has a trend term, it is obvious that the MP combinations of
BDS-2 contain additional systematic biases, which are related
to elevation. Therefore, it is considered that they were caused
by the transmitting BDS-2 satellites.
34
Fig. 7. The RMS values of MP at B1I, B2I, B1C and B2a.
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
August 2022

Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 25-5

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