IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 32

An Apparatus and Method for
Measuring Sand Content Based on
Near-Infrared Shortwave Scattering
Xianrui Li, Bin Xu, Zhang Xiaodong, and Wenjun Ni
R
.
iver suspended sediment content (sand content) is
one of the most important hydrological parameters,
and its measurement application in water resources
is of great significance. In this paper, an online sand content
measurement device is developed that is based on nearinfrared
short-wave scattering optical measurement at 850 nm
wavelength to study the complex variation relationship between
scattered light intensity and sand content. The sand
content measurement method is obtained after several groups
of experimental research, ensuring the sand content is in the
range of 0-20 kg/m³, the relative error of measurement accuracy
after calibration is less than 3.44%, and the uncertainty of
1 0148 0 0174
± . /. kg m3 The maximum relative error of field
measurement accuracy is 9.84%, which meets the requirement
of 10% set as a national standard. The research results have
good application prospects in river and channel erosion control
and automatic monitoring of water extraction for industry
and agriculture.
Measuring Soil Erosion
Global soil erosion is becoming increasingly serious, with
about one third of the world's area currently subject to soil
erosion and more than 60 billion tons of surface soil being
lost to erosion every year, of which nearly 20 billion tons are
transported by rivers to the sea [1]. China is one of the countries
with the most severe soil erosion, with a total of about
2.4 billion tons of sediment entering the Yangtze River basin
and about 1.6 billion tons of sediment entering the Yellow
River basin each year. The ability to achieve real-time online
measurement of sand content has become an important issue
for the healthy development of China's economy and society.
At present, sand content measurement methods are
mainly divided into direct measurement methods and indirect
measurement methods. The direct measurement methods
include a drying method and specific gravity method; the indirect
measurement methods include the isotope method,
vibration method, acoustic measurement method, telemetry
sensing method and optical measurement method.
The main principle of a direct measurement method is to
32
obtain the sand content by taking samples in the field and
then weighing the sand sample after a drying process occurs
in the laboratory. The direct measurement method has
high accuracy, but it is time-consuming and inefficient, and
cannot meet the current demand for real-time online measurement
of sand content [2],[3]. The isotope method of
indirect measurement uses nuclear radioactive elements to
emit electromagnetic waves, and the sand content is measured
by the degree of attenuation of the radiation in the
sand-bearing water body [4]. However, this method has low
sensitivity and is only suitable for a sand sample environment
of 1000 mg/m3
, and the method of radiation from this
radioactive source also has an impact on the green environment.
The vibration method obtains the vibration period or
vibration frequency of different sand content by the change
of resonance frequency when the sand sample flows through
a vibration tube [5]. The vibration method has a wide measurement
range and is subject to little variation in sediment
particle size, but it is susceptible to ambient temperature and
can cause clogging of the vibrating tube at low flow rates,
thus affecting the error. Acoustic measurements are mainly
through field water samples in the environment of ultrasonic
reflection and attenuation characteristics of the sand
samples, resulting in the construction of their corresponding
relationship to achieve the measurement of sand content
[6]. The acoustic measurement method has high measurement
accuracy and is particularly sensitive in water samples
with low sand content, but the overall size of the acoustic
measurement equipment is large, not easy to carry, and is
affected by environmental conditions such as rain. The remote
sensing perception method measures the sand content
in water bodies by satellite remote sensing photography, after
spectral reflection, to obtain the influence of the spectral
properties of water samples. This method mainly realizes
the coarse detection of suspended sediment with low sand
content in large areas such as estuaries and lakes and cannot
realize the fixed-point measurement of river channels.
The optical measurement method obtains the corresponding
scattered light or transmitted light through the relationship
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
1094-6969/23/$25.00©2023IEEE
September 2023

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

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