IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 52

Viewing field
Viewing field
(a)
(a)
(b)
Fig. 5. (a) The imaging monitoring schematic diagram of ultrasonic probe; (b)
The obtained profile image of the internal structure of soil-rock mixture.
transmitted forward by the ultrasonic wave will gradually
decay and become smaller with the increase of the distance,
due to the scattering absorption and interface reflection of the
particle in the soil-rock mixture. The lower the frequency of ultrasonic
wave, the better the penetration of ultrasonic wave;
however, the longer the wavelength of ultrasonic wave, the
worse the resolution. On the contrary, the higher the frequency,
the better the directivity of the ultrasonic beam, the higher the
resolution is, but the ultrasonic attenuation is also enhanced,
so that the effective measurement depth is reduced. Therefore,
the detection depth range and detection accuracy of the
internal structure of soil-rock mixture cannot be improved by
increasing the working frequency of ultrasonic wave unlimitedly.
Instead, the detection range and detection accuracy
can only be obtained by changing the position and angle of
the probe constantly. Therefore, the fixed position of the ultrasonic
probe was constantly changed in this study, and the
profile image of the internal structural morphology of the soilrock
mixture was obtained at each position, as shown in Fig. 6.
Analysis and Discussion
of the Testing Results
The main influence factors of the ultrasonic transmission
imaging experiments towards rock soil are the ultrasonic
imaging precision and the detection range of the ultrasonic
transmission imaging test system. The ultrasonic imaging precision,
that is, the spatial resolution can be up to 0.1 mm when
the ultrasonic frequency is 2 MHz. The spatial resolution can
be influenced by ultrasonic frequency and the internal echo
signal process method. The detection range of this system is
about 0.8 m width and 1.5 m length. The imaging range is influenced
by the ultrasonic power of phased array probe.
Statistical Analysis of the Imaging
Characteristics
It is necessary to analyze and recognize the features of different
profile images obtained by the ultrasound imager. Since the
52
(b)
(c)
(d)
Fig. 6. The profile images of the internal morphological structure of soil-rock
mixture obtained by the ultrasound imager at different locations. (a) Profile A;
(b) Profile B; (c) Profile C; (d) Profile D.
imaging bright band can reflect the morphological characteristics
of the internal structures comprehensively, some image
processing methods are adopted in this paper to statistically
analyze the bright band features, that is, the imaging boundary
and area occupied by the light spots and bright bands in
the profile image. The specific implementation method is as
follows: first, the original image is cropped uniformly, and the
median filtering method is used for unified image filtering to
obtain the filtered image. Then, the filtered image is processed
by unified threshold segmentation method, that is, the pixel
value less than one third of the average value of the image is
directly zeroed, and the pixel value greater than the threshold
value is retained to obtain the segmented image. Finally, the
Canny method is used to detect the boundary shape of the segmented
image, obtain the morphological position information
of each light spot and bright band, and get the feature map of
them. According to the four profiles in Fig. 6, the feature map
of light spots and bright bands is obtained after the above processing,
as shown in Fig. 7, and the statistical results of the light
spots and bright bands are shown in Table 1.
Approximate Calculation of Pore Space Ratio
Because of the one-to-one corresponding relationship between
the ultrasonic reflection attenuation characteristics
and the distribution of the internal structure of the soil-rock
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
September 2023

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

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