IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 53

(a)
(b)
from top to next time, and then the number of pixel points
Nall is counted throughout the calculation. Finally, the ratio
of Num and Nall is calculated, which can be equivalent to
the pore space ratio. This method greatly simplifies the traditional
calculation method by means of ultrasonic profile
imaging and image feature processing.
The area of non-zero region of each image was statistically
analyzed according to the light spots and bright bands
of the four profile images in the feature maps of Fig. 7. The
pore space ratios of the four subfigures were 2.24%, 4.82%,
8.95% and 12.32%, respectively. The acquisition of these parameters
is of great significance to the study of mechanical
properties and engineering application of soil-rock mixture.
(c)
(d)
Fig. 7. The feature maps of light spots and bright bands, corresponding to the
four profiles in Fig. 6. (a) Profile A; (b) Profile B; (c) Profile C; (d) Profile D.
Table 1 - Statistical results of the light spots
and bright bands (corresponding to the four
profiles in Fig. 7)
Category
Profile A
Profile B
Profile C
Profile D
The number of
light spots
(0 < Pixels size ≤ 20)
107
185
296
352
The number of
bright bands
(Pixels > 20)
16
34
69
94
mixture, the profile image of the internal structures obtained
by the ultrasound imager has a one-to-one correspondence
with the actual distribution characteristics of the internal
structure of the soil-rock mixture. In addition, since the internal
boundary structure and the gaps existing in the soil-rock
mixture are the most sensitive to the reflection attenuation
of ultrasonic waves, the ratio of non-zero region is statistically
analyzed according to the feature map in Step 3
(Fig. 3). The pore space ratio of the internal structure of the
soil-rock mixture can be obtained according to the calculated
ratio. The specific calculation method is as follows: according
to the obtained feature map of light spots and bright
bands, the number of non-zero-pixel points Num is counted
September 2023
Reconstruction of Internal Structural
Morphological Characteristics
According to the morphological position information, that is,
the light spots and bright bands in the feature map obtained
in Step 3 and the pore space ratio information obtained in
Step 4 (Fig. 3), the cross-sectional view of the internal structure
of soil-rock mixture can be reconstructed by using multiple
profile images. The concrete implementation steps are as
follows: perform the closing operation in image processing according
to the position of each light spots and bright bands and
the ratio of overall porosity, and finally get the reconstruction
map of each profile image, to realize the reconstruction of the
morphological characteristics of the internal structures. A reconstruction
of Fig. 7 is shown in Fig. 8.
The specific calculation method is as follows: first, according
to the coordinate position and pixel value of each light spot
and bright band in the feature map, the size of each pixel value
is increased and decreased successively according to the distance
and position of the pixel, and the ratio of increasing and
decreasing is calculated by using the value of pore space ratio
to get the construction image. Then, the closing operation
method in the general image processing method is used to
carry out on the whole constructed image, in which the construction
element used in the comparison operation is ellipse,
and the size of the construction element is an odd value closest
to the pore space ratio, which cannot be less than 3. Therefore,
the above rules were adopted to finally obtain the morphological
features of the internal structure and reconstruct the image,
as shown in Fig. 8. The construction elements in Fig. 8 have
sizes of 3, 5, 9, and 11, respectively.
The morphological reconstruction of internal structure can
help author well understand the inner structures of in-situ soilrock
mixture. It can be a comparison if using our method or if
not. The ultrasonic imaging results are visual and direct for authors.
This is also a key way to show the visual detection ability
of this method and benefits towards geological application.
Conclusions
In the existing portable phased array ultrasound imager, a lot
of ultrasonic transmission imaging experiments were conducted
in view of the real-time detection problem for the
visual analysis of morphological characteristics of the internal
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
53

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

Contents
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - Cover1
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