IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 7

Of course, if the verification of an instrument is successful
with high confidence (namely if the wanted accuracy requirements
are met), instrument calibration can be postponed. On
the contrary, when instrument calibration is performed, further
maintenance or adjustment actions may be required,
e.g., if some accuracy limits are violated in one or more
operating conditions or if some crucial metrological characteristics
are unexpectedly different from the required ones.
In general, since the results of QMS-driven monitoring and
measurement activities depend also on the metrological status
of the measuring equipment, the ISO 9001:2015 Standard
explicitly states in Clause 7.1.5.2 that the measuring equipment
shall be:
◗ Identified to determine its status;
◗ Periodically calibrated or verified against references traceable
to national or international standards;
◗ Safeguarded from adjustment, damage or deterioration
that would invalidate its calibration.
If an organization discovers that the validity of measurement
results is compromised or the measuring equipment is
found to be unfit for the intended purpose, the organization
must take appropriate corrective and recovery actions timely
and effectively. To handle these kinds of issues properly, a
QMS should be supported by a Measurement Management
System (MMS).
Role of Measurement Management
Systems (MMS)
An MMS is a set of interrelated or interacting elements aimed
at ensuring that measuring equipment and measurement processes
are fit for their intended use. The goal of an MMS is
twofold [6], i.e.,
◗ Ensuring that specified quality requirements are met;
◗ Reducing the risks that measurement equipment and
processes produce incorrect results.
Such risks, usually split into Consumer's Risk (CR) and Producer's
Risk (PR), may have severe economic and/or legal
consequences for companies. Given a generic quantity x chosen
as a performance or quality indicator, the corresponding
measured quantity y and the compliance interval A = [μx
μx + S] (where μx is the target value of x and S is the specification
- S,
limit), CR and PR are defined, respectively [7], [8], as:
CRA A
= ∉∈Pr| Pr|PRA A
{} = ∈∉
x
y
x
y
and {} (1)
The CR refers to the probability of wrongly accepting an
out-of-compliance item or service. The CR costs for companies
are both direct (e.g., repair or replacement costs) and indirect,
as they can greatly and unpredictably grow due to the loss of
reputation with customers, which can be further amplified by
social networks. Also, in some cases (e.g., whenever legal metrology
requirements must be met), the CR costs may comprise
possible economic sanctions imposed by national or international
authorities.
The PR depends instead on the probability of wrongly excluding
compliant items or services. The related costs are
September 2023
mainly due to the waste of materials, labor and energy. Therefore,
the PR costs are usually more predictable and potentially
lower than the CR ones. Of course, both CR and PR should
be kept as low as possible, e.g., by properly keeping both the
target measurement uncertainty and the amount of guardbanding
under control [9].
An MMS can be useful to achieve this goal. Through an
MMS, the measuring equipment can be handled in a costeffective
manner, not only for calibration, verification and
maintenance purposes, but over the whole lifetime cycle from
acquisition to final disposal.
The general requirements of an MMS are specified in the
ISO Standard 10012:2003 that was reviewed and confirmed
in 2022 [6]. This Standard is complementary to other norms
in which it is explicitly mentioned (e.g., the ISO Standards
9001:2015 and 14001:2015), and it should not be confused with,
nor it is supposed to replace, the ISO/IEC Standard 17025:2017
that is instead aimed at the accreditation of testing and calibration
laboratories [10].
Likewise, the ISO Standard 9001:2015, also the ISO Standard
10012:2003 relies on a Deming cycle approach. In Clause
7 of [6], the two central elements to be considered for MMS implementation
are identified and properly defined. They are:
◗ The measurement process, namely the set of operations to
determine the value of a quantity;
◗ The metrological confirmation, i.e., the set of operations
required to ensure that measuring equipment conforms
to the requirements for its intended use.
According to the ISO Standard 10012:2003 (Clause 7.2), a
measurement process consists of three main steps, i.e., design,
realization and recording (Fig. 2).
◗ The design step is needed to establish kind of measurements
to be performed (i.e., measurands and target
uncertainty limits), instruments to be used (including
their metrological characteristics), measurement methods,
and personnel's technical skills.
◗ The realization step includes all the activities needed
to perform measurements under controlled and therefore
repeatable conditions. Such conditions depend
on: chosen equipment, quantities of interest and of
influence, adopted procedures, environmental and operating
conditions. The realization step must also include
measurement uncertainty evaluation (possibly based on
the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement
and it supplements [11]-[13]), which is essential to
report measurement results correctly.
◗ Finally, the recording step involves the preparation of all
documents showing the compliance of the whole process.
It is worth emphasizing that the general methodology outlined
above has been the subject of further studies over the last
few years [14], which led to the identification of at least other
two additional steps of a measurement process, one before and
the other after those listed above. On the one hand, the design
step should be regarded as a part of a broader planning step.
This means that, before designing how to perform measurements,
it is essential to:
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
7

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

Contents
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - Cover1
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - Cover2
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - Contents
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 2
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