IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 8

1. Specify formally the ultimate goal of such measurements,
and
2. Develop a model describing the relationship between the
main physical quantities of interest and influence.
On the other hand, reporting and recording measurement
results only is quite useless without a final analysis and interpretation
of such data. In other words, a follow-up step is
needed in which measurement results are further analyzed to
support both technical and management decisions (e.g., future
process planning) and to learn lessons for the future.
The ISO Standard 10012:2003 partially acknowledges this
need in Chapter 8, where it is explicitly stated that " the metrological
function shall plan and implement the monitoring,
analysis and improvements needed to ensure conformity
of the MMS with this Standard, and to continually improve
the MMS " [6]. As a result, the instrument inventory must be
periodically checked and updated, instrumentation conformity
must be verified and suitable improvement strategies
have to be defined. Thus, a metrological confirmation process
must be implemented. Metrological confirmation relies
on both calibration and verification. A simplified flowchart
of the metrological confirmation process is shown in Fig. 3.
After establishing the target accuracy limits and other metrological
requirements, the adopted instruments have to be
Design
* Measurand definition and modelling
* Measurement methods
* Instruments selection
* Personnel skills identification
Realization
Recording
* Control of experimental conditions
* Uncertainty evaluation (GUM)
* Reporting of results
* Measurement process documentation
* Instrument inventory update
calibrated. If the equipment is new, usually the calibration
certificate provided by the instrument's manufacturer is sufficient;
otherwise, instrument calibration must be performed by
an accredited laboratory (i.e., compliant with the requirements
of Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2017 [10]), and it has to be properly
documented.
If some application-specific metrological requirements exist,
then a further verification step is needed to check if the
instrument is suitable for the intended purpose. For instance,
the calibration certificate of a laser rangefinder alone, although
formally required, does not automatically imply that
instrument's accuracy or range are suitable for the distance
measurements that a company has to perform within a given
industrial process.
The most common metrological requirements for verification
are:
◗ Expanded uncertainty U ≤ MPE;
◗ No significant systematic contributions or biases in
measurement results;
◗ Good repeatability (namely the instrument's capability to
provide similar results over a short period of time when
the same measurement procedure, the same operators,
the same measuring system, same operating conditions
and same location are chosen [5]);
◗ Adequate stability (i.e.,
instrument's metrological
properties tend
to remain constant in
time [5]).
Analysis and
interpretation
* Conformity checking
* Improvement strategies
Fig. 2. Main steps of a measurement process according to the ISO Standard 10012:2003 [6].
Measurement
need
Yes
Verification
Does
equipment comply with
requirements?
No
Adjust or repairif
possible
Return equipment
to users/customers
Fig. 3. Simplified flowchart of the metrological confirmation process according to the ISO Standard 10012:2003.
8
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Yes
Calibration
Do metrological
requirements
exist?
No
No verification
possible
Verification/confirmation
status document
If the verification step is
successful, the confirmation
status of a given instrument
is properly documented, and
the instrument can be returned
to users (or customers
if calibration/verification are
external to the organization).
If the verification step fails,
the instrument should be adjusted,
repaired (if faulty)
or even replaced when unrecoverable
problems are
discovered. Afterwards,
the time to the next metrological
confirmation
(particularly calibration)
should be determined.
The Metrological
Confirmation
Interval Problem
How to determine the
time interval between
subsequent metrological
confirmations is a wellknown
industrial metrology
September 2023
Review
confirmation
time interval

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023

Contents
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - Cover1
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - Cover2
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - Contents
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 2
IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement - September 2023 - 3
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