Journal of Oral Implantology October 2013 - (Page 551)

RESEARCH A Pig Model for the Histomorphometric Evaluation of Hard Tissue Around Dental Implants ¨ ¨ Ozgur Erdogan, DDS, PhD1* ¨ ¨ Yakup Ustun, DDS, PhD2 Ufuk Tatli, DDS, PhD1 Ibrahim Damlar, DDS1 Kenan Daglıoglu, VMD, PhD3 This study aimed to evaluate the frontal bone of Swiss Domestic pigs as an animal model for the histologichistomorphometric examination of bony tissue around dental implants. We inserted SLA surface implants 4.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length into the frontal bones of 9 Swiss-Domestic pigs. Histologic and histomorphometric studies were conducted on the undecalcified sections. Histologic examinations showed that the specimens contain a sufficient amount of bone to provide homogenous bone coverage for standard diameter dental implant placement. The mean bone to implant contact was 61.9% 6 8.7%. Other histomorphometric parameters revealed the regular trabecular architecture at this site. Pigs’ frontal bone appears to be a suitable animal model in short-term dental implant studies because it provides a sufficient amount of bone and favorable bone microarchitecture. Key Words: dental implants, osseointegration, animal model, histomorphometry, frontal bone INTRODUCTION A nimal studies constitute the main component of histologic-histomorphometric research in implant dentistry. Since the introduction of dental implants to the market, many animal studies have been published and are still been conducted for the improvement of today’s dental implant technology. Determination of the conformity of a new biomaterial or newly designed implant depends on the data retrieved from the animal studies before using the implant is used in clinical practice. Animal studies regarding dental implants are mostly performed on monkeys (macaques and baboons), rabbits, sheep, goats, pigs/mini pigs, and dogs.1–4 1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey. ¸ 2 Private Practice, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Adana, Turkey. 3 Experimental Medical Research Center, Cukurova University, ¸ Adana, Turkey. * Corresponding author, e-mail: DOI: 10.1563/AAID-JOI-D-11-00009 When the hard tissue around dental implants is to be evaluated, both intraoral and extraoral implantations can be done. Implants should be placed into the safest place, so there will be no or few implant failures and a maximum number of specimens for the histologic or histomorphometric examinations. In addition, the bone architecture of the selected animal model should closely resemble human jaw bones, so a comparable healing response can be obtained. Maxillofacial bones of monkey and dog species are being used for dental implant studies to some degree, and they are considered as good representative for human maxillofacial bones.5,6 However, it is difficult to use monkeys and dogs because of the need to obtain ethical approval and the increased cost. Therefore, researchers often opt to study small animals such as rabbits. Because the amount of bone at the maxillofacial region of small animals is inadequate for dental implant studies, the anatomic site of choice is usually an extremity bone. However, long bones such as tibia or femur have the disadvantage of having endochondral bone origiJournal of Oral Implantology 551

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Journal of Oral Implantology October 2013

Food and Drug Administration: Reclassification of Blade Form Dental Implants
Optimizing Platelet-Rich Plasma Gel Formation by Varying Time and Gravitational Forces During Centrifugation
Effect of Surface Roughness and Low-Level Laser Therapy on Removal Torque of Implants Placed in Rat Femurs
Impression Techniques for Multiple Implants: A Photoelastic Analysis. Part I: Comparison of Three Direct Methods
Impression Techniques for Multiple Implants: A Photoelastic Analysis. Part II: Comparison of Four Acrylic Resins
A Pig Model for the Histomorphometric Evaluation of Hard Tissue Around Dental Implants
In Situ Tooth Replica Custom Implant: A 3-Dimensional Finite Element Stress and Strain Analysis
Influence of Different Soft Liners on Stress Distribution in Peri-Implant Bone Tissue During Healing Period. A 3D Finite Element Analysis
Influence of Surface Nano-Roughness on Osseointegration of Zirconia Implants in Rabbit Femur Heads Using Selective Infiltration Etching Technique
Modified Titanium Surfaces Alter Osteogenic Differentiation: A Comparative Microarray- Based Analysis of Human Mesenchymal Cell Response to Commercial Titanium Surfaces
Hemorrhage Secondary to Interforaminal Implant Surgery: Anatomical Considerations and Report of a Case
Rehabilitation of a Patient With Mandibular Resection Using Osteointegrated Implants: A Case Report
Two-Stage Bone Expansion Technique Using Spear-Shaped Implants Associated With Overlapped Flap: A Case Report
Implant Esthetic Restoration in Ridge Deficiencies in Cases of Trauma: A Case Report
Rehabilitation of the Atrophic Maxilla With Tilted Implants: Review of the Literature

Journal of Oral Implantology October 2013